Essential Skills in Dynamic Public Speaking - AIM-IRS

The Blessing
God, that all-powerful Creator of nature
and architect of the world,
has impressed man with no character
so proper to distinguish him from other
animals, as by the faculty of speech.
~ Quintilian
Who, What, Why, Where, When
The Road Map
• Who ARE YOU?
• Who is your audience?
• Who is your “target” audience?
WHO you are!
• Every prospective speaker should ask, "Is
there a particular cause that has personal
significance for me? If I could change
something about the world, what would I
choose? If studying the art of public
speaking will give me the tools to influence
the world around me, how will I use
Who ARE you?
• Before you can convince an audience to accept
anything you say, they have to accept you as
• There are many aspects to building your
– Does the audience respect you?
– Does the audience believe you are of good
– Do they believe you are genuinely trustworthy?
– Do they believe that you are an authority on your
subject matter?
WHO are YOU?
• Do you feel more comfortable giving a
speech in front of a large crowd, or having
a low-key conversation with your friends?
• If you chose the second option, you’re in
good company. After all, we practice our
conversational skills every day.
Who is your AUDIENCE?
If you would like to change the world,
remember--public speaking is an effective
platform for spreading revolutionary ideas.
So then…..
Who is your TARGET Audience?
• Co-Workers/Peers vs. Supervisor/Mgrs vs.
• Friends vs. Church Members vs. Clergy
• KKK > Civil Rights Organization
Puzzling 101
The “WHAT” piece of the Public
Speaking Puzzle
Words to the Wise
“There are three things to aim at in Public
Speaking: First, to get into your subject,
Then to get your subject into yourself, and
Lastly, to get your subject into the heart of
your audience.”
~ Alexander Gregg
“There is only one excuse for a speaker's
asking the attention of his audience: he must
have either truth or entertainment for them.”
~ Dale Carnegie
What IS Public Speaking?
While our current knowledge and practice of public
speaking draws upon the Western thought from Greece
and Rome, Public speaking is a process of speaking to
a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner
intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners
- Orator
A skilled and eloquent public speaker
- Rhetoric
The art of using language, especially public speaking,
as a means to persuade.
Public Speaking
A conversation is a casual dialogue in which two or
more parties exchange ideas back and forth.
A speech is a monologue in which the speaker
presents his or her perspective with no interruptions
from the audience.
In a conversation, each person mentions questions,
concerns, and objections as they come up. In the
context of a speech, audience members cannot
address their concerns in real time.
The Purpose of WHAT
Aristotle defined rhetoric as the “faculty of
discovering the possible means of
persuasion in reference to any subject
whatever.” Aristotle divided the “means of
persuasion” into three parts, or three
artistic proofs, necessary to persuade
The “WHY” piece of the
Public Speaking Puzzle
Words to the Wise
~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
“If you don’t know what you want to achieve in
your presentation your audience never will.”
~ Harvey Diamond
• Public speaking can be a great self-esteem
• Public speaking engagements are great places
to meet new social and professional contacts
• There is a strong correlation between
communication skills and leadership. Effective
speakers can use knowledge of persuasion to
motivate others to take collective action to
achieve desired goals. *Examples (Good/Bad)
The Purpose of Why
• Do your words evoke feelings of … love?
… sympathy? … fear?
• Do your visuals evoke feelings of
compassion? … envy?
• Are you merely speaking in public or
utilizing the tools, effectively, of public
The “WHERE” piece of the
Public Speaking Puzzle
Words to the Wise
“The customer is always right' may have
become a standard motto in the world of
business, but the idea that 'the audience is
always right,' has yet to make much of an
impression on the world of presentation,
even though for the duration of the
presentation at least, the audience is the
speaker's only customer.”
Max Atkinson
The Road Less Traveled
or perhaps…..
The Road MORE Traveled
• The formal study of public speaking began
approximately 2,500 years ago in Greece
and Rome to train citizens to participate in
society, but more so it was the one true
method of sure communication.
Periods of Schools of Thought
• The Classical Period (500 BCE-400 BCE)
– Aspasia of Miletus, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
– Cicero and Quintilian
• The Medieval Period (400 CE-1400 CE)
– St. Augustine
• The Renaissance (1400-1600 CE)
– Petrus Ramus and Francis Bacon
• The Enlightenment (1600-1800 CE)
– George Campbell
• New School--1900s and 2000s Through
Rhetoric 101
Spelled [ret-er-ik]
1. (in writing or speech) the undue use of exaggeration or display;
2. the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in
prose or verse, including the figures of speech.
3. the study of the effective use of language.
4. the ability to use language effectively.
5. the art of prose in general as opposed to verse.
The “Father” of Rhetoric
Aristotle is thought to be the father of many of the schools of thought
that operate today.
* The Buckley School
* Dale Carnegie
* Toastmasters
Many teachers of communication, speech, and rhetoric consider
Aristotle’s On Rhetoric to be a seminal work in the field and a major
periodical work called it “the most important single work on
persuasion ever written.”
Written in the 4th century B.C.E., the Greek philosopher Aristotle
compiled his thoughts on the art of rhetoric into On Rhetoric,
including his theory on the three persuasive appeals.
Aristotle defined rhetoric as the “faculty of
discovering the possible means of persuasion in
reference to any subject whatever.”
2300 years ago, Aristotle wrote down the secret to
being a persuasive speaker, the secret which
forms the basis for nearly every public speaking
book written since then.
The Secret
Three Pillars of Public Speaking
The Secret Revealed
Ethos - Speaker Credibility
Pathos - Emotional Connection
Logos - Logical Argument
The Purpose of WHERE
• In order to have a “Finished Line” you
must have a “Starting Line”.
“Professor Johnston often said that if you
didn't know history, you didn't know
anything. You were a leaf that didn't know
it was part of a tree.”
~Michael Crichton
The “WHEN” to the
Public Speaking Puzzle
Words to the Wise
“The problem with speeches isn’t so much not
knowing when to stop, as knowing when not to
~ Frances Rodman
“Public speaking is the art of diluting a two-minute idea
with a two-hour vocabulary.”
~ Evan Esar
“To listen closely and reply well is the highest
perfection we are able to attain in the art of
~ Francois de La Rochefoucauld
WHEN is the right time?
The Purpose of WHEN
• Today, the reach of technology is pervasive and
global. In the past, influencing others involved
speaking directly to an audience face-to-face or
having expensive equipment for broadcasting.
Today, modern communication technology
coupled with the internet means that speakers
can share messages and thoughts with
audiences anyplace in the world for the cost of
an internet connection and a camera, or simply
a smart phone recorder.
Ethos, Pathos, Logos
In the simplest terms, Aristotle’s “Secret” corresponds to:
• WHO = Ethos: credibility (or character) of the speaker
• WHAT/WHEN = Pathos: emotional connection to the
• WHY = Logos: logical argument
Together, they are the three persuasive appeals. In other
words, these are the three essential qualities that your
speech or presentation must have before your audience
will accept your message.
The Finished Puzzle
Words to the Wise
“The success of your presentation will be judged NOT
by the knowledge you send BUT by what the listener
“Be still when you have nothing to say; when genuine
passion moves you, say what you’ve got to say, and
say it hot.”
~ D. H. Lawrence
Learning to Speak
• The flip side of public speaking is listening;
people can learn how to influence by
learning how to listen. Trained speakers
know how to recognize sound logic,
reasoning, and ethical appeals.
• A critical listener is less likely to be
persuaded by unsound logic and fallacies
or to take action that is not in his or her
best interest.
Listening and Hearing
• If etiquette dictates that you should listen to your
conversation partner, shouldn't you also to try to listen to
the audience at a public speaking engagement?
• Try to anticipate these questions, concerns, and
objections, and incorporate responses into your speech.
• If you imagine your speech as a conversation in which
you take both parts, it may be easier to give the
audience's concerns prompt and thorough consideration.
Common Cents?
• Remember to "dress to impress"--when in doubt,
go for business professional. It's better to be
overdressed for a speech or presentation than
• Your verbal communication, in how you phrase
and intone your actual words, is vital to building
auditory interest for your audience. Try to play
with the pitch and tone of your speech; avoid
speaking in monotone.
Common Sense
• Your audience “senses” you just as much as
they hear you.
• From gesture to posture, your non-verbal
communication via your body language also
adds visual depth and engagement for your
audience. Maintain eye contact. Don't wander
around stage or gesticulate too much. Make
your audience feel comfortable by being
comfortable in front of them.
The Classic Pause
• Practice and Timing
• Focus on delivery as a whole instead of
nitpicking every sound that comes out of
your mouth
• If you forget, remember that your audience
really never knows what you’re going to
say, so…..
Rhetorically Speaking
“The best way to sound
like you know what you're
talking about is to know
what you're talking
~Author Unknown
25 Necessary Skills
Research a topic – Good speakers stick to what they
know. Great speakers research what they need to
convey their message.
Focus – Help your audience grasp your message by
focusing on your message. Stories, humour, or other
“sidebars” should connect to the core idea. Anything
that doesn’t needs to be edited out.
Organize ideas logically – A well-organized
presentation can be absorbed with minimal mental
strain. Bridging is key.
Tell a story – Everyone loves a story. Points wrapped
up in a story are more memorable, too!
Start Strong and close stronger– The body of your
presentation should be strong too, but your audience
will remember your first and last words (if, indeed, they
remember anything at all).
Interact with the audience – Ask questions (and care
about the answers). Solicit volunteers. Make your
presentation a dialogue.
Incorporate humor – Knowing when to use humor is
essential. So is developing the comedic timing to
deliver it with greatest effect.
Utilize 3-dimensional space – Chaining yourself to
the lectern limits the energy and passion you can
exhibit. Lose the notes, and lose the chain.
Complement words with visual aids – Visual aids
should aid the message; they should not be the
Analyze your audience – Deliver the message they
want (or need) to hear.
Connect with the audience – Eye contact is only the
first step.
• Vary vocal pace, tone and volume – A monotone voice
is like fingernails on the chalkboard.
• Master metaphors – Metaphors enhance the
understandability of the message in a way that direct
language often can not.
• Punctuate words with gestures – Gestures should
complement your words in harmony. Tell them how big
the fish was, and show them with your arms.
• Employ quotations, facts, and statistics – Don’t
include these for the sake of including them, but do use
them appropriately to complement your ideas.
Conduct a “Q & A” Session – Not every speaking
opportunity affords a Q&A session, but understand
how to lead one productively. Use the Q&A to solidify
the impression that you are an expert, not (just) a
Lead a discussion – Again, not every speaking
opportunity affords time for a discussion, but know how
to engage the audience productively.
Obey time constraints – Maybe you have 2 minutes.
Maybe you have 45. Either way, customize your
presentation to fit the time allowed, and respect your
audience by not going over time.
Craft an introduction – Set the context and make
sure the audience is ready to go, whether the
introduction is for you or for someone else.
Handle unexpected issues smoothly – Maybe the
lights will go out. Maybe the projector is dead. Have a
plan to handle every situation.
Be coherent when speaking off the cuff –
Impromptu speaking (before, after, or during a
presentation) leaves a lasting impression too. Doing it
well tells the audience that you are personable, and
that you are an expert who knows their stuff beyond
the slides and prepared speech.
Seek and utilize feedback – Understand that no
presentation or presenter (yes, even you!) is perfect.
Aim for continuous improvement, and understand that
the best way to improve is to solicit candid feedback
from as many people as you can.
• Exhibit confidence and poise – These qualities are
sometimes difficult for a speaker to attain, but easy for
an audience to sense.
• Listen critically and analyze other speakers – Study
the strengths and weakness of other speakers.
• Act and speak ethically – Since public speaking fears
are so common, realize the tremendous power of
influence that you hold. Use this power responsibly
Developing YOU
• The Naked Presenter by Garr Reynolds
• Back of the Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas
with Pictures by Dan Roam
– (Smart people who want to improve their visual thinking skills)
• Slide:ology: The Art and Science of Creating Great
Presentations by Nancy Duarte
– (Any and everyone who wants a classic reference test for
presentation design. A definite read and re-read)
• Speak Like Churchill, Stand Like Lincoln: 21 Powerful
Secrets of History’s Greatest Speakers
– (Speakers who seek to elevate their speechwriting and delivery
from good to GREAT)