Rhetoric for CEMUS 12 feb 2014

Rhetoric for Change
Climate Change Leadership
– Power, Politics and Culture
Mika Hietanen
Associate Professor in Rhetoric
Dept. of Literature, UU
Feb. 12th, 2014
What is Communication?
Berlo’s Source-Message-Channel-Receiver Model (1960)
What is efficient communication?
I. The successful delivery of an uncorrupted message
The audience to understands our message as we intended.
Two questions towards success:
a) What exactly do I want to say?
Tip: summarize the core of your message in one
sentence and also in an elevator pitch
b) How should I say it in order for the receivers to
understand it correctly?
– the right content (topic, selection) and
the right format (language, level, format, scope)
– depends on the audience
… (cont.) What is efficient communication?
II. Visible consequences
The receiver begins to think or act as intended by the
sender. –> What changes or results do we want to see in
our listenders or readers?
To summarize:
• if you don’t know exactly what you want to say, the
audience will be confused as well
• if you cannot match your content and form to the specific
audience, they probably cannot understand you either
How does a speaker or writer
achieve success?
Cicero’s three “duties”
of a speaker:
• docere (teach)
• delectare (entertain)
• movere (move)
Aristotle’s ”artistic” proofs:
• logos
• ethos
• pathos
Aristotle’s ”non-artistic”
• laws, documents,
testimony, etc.
The classical disposition of a speech
Greetings (exordium)
– evoke the audience’s goodwill, trust and interest
Introduction (narratio)
– give enough background and context to make your
presentation understandable and relevant
Thesis (propositio)
– what is the main idea or suggestion in your message
(if this part is unclear after the presentation, all is lost)
Argumentation (argumentatio; refutatio)
– give varied support for your thesis: research, examples,
statistics, graphs, comparisons, and consider relevant
objections (ethos, pathos logos, and non-artistic proofs)
Conclusion (peroratio; recapitulatio)
– implications, next steps, connect with the audience
Nine points of advice
Using slides – Nine points of advice
1. For each slide, ask yourself: how does this help the
listener to appropriate my message?
2. Be mindful of content and form, they should support
each other in a clear way.
3. Do not write out your manuscript in PowerPoint
form (only bullets, quotations, graphs, pictures).
Using slides – Nine points of advice
4. Do not let the slides come between you and your
5. The spoken word should be primary, while text and
pictures complement and amplify your message.
6. Ideally, the presentation summarises your message
and works as a visual, dispositional and
mnemotecnic aid.
Using slides – Nine points of advice
7. It is difficult to listen, read and write at the same
8. Consider handouts if you need to share larger
pieces of text or data.
9. When using slides, consider Aristotle’s definition
of rhetoric: ”the ability in each case to find that
which is most persuasive.”
Suggested reading
Everything’s an Argument
Andrea A. Lunsford & John J. Ruskiewicz & Keith Walters,
Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 6th edn 2012
Learn to Write Badly: How to Succeed in the Social
Michael Billig, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press