Background on Apartheid in South Africa Master Harold…and the Boys Unit South Africa Africa is a continent, not a country. South Africa is a country located on the tip of that continent. Who lives in South Africa? According to 2010 estimations: Black African: 79.4% Major ethnic groups include the Zulu, Xhosa, Basehor (South Sotho), Bapedi (North Sotho), Venda, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi and Ndebele, all of which speak Bantu languages White: 9.2% (In the first census in 1911, Whites made up 22% of population) descend from many ethnic groups: Dutch, German, French Huguenot, and British. Culturally and linguistically, they are divided into the Afrikaners, who speak Afrikaans, and English-speaking groups, many of whom are descended from British immigrants Who lives in South Africa? “Coloured”: 8.8% The term "Coloured" is still largely used for the people of mixed race descended from slaves brought in from East and Central Africa, the indigenous Khoisan who lived in the Cape at the time, indigenous African Blacks, Whites (mostly the Dutch/Afrikaner and British settlers) as well as an admixture of Javanese, Malay, Indian, Malagasy and other European (such as Portuguese) and Asian blood (such as Burmese). Indian or Asian: 2.6% National Party of South Africa Was the governing party of South Africa from June 4, 1948 until May 9, 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. What is Apartheid? An Afrikaans word meaning “apartness” Was the name given to the program of racial segregation implemented in South Africa after World War II Afrikaners An ethnic group in Southern Africa descended from Dutch (including Flemish), French and German settlers whose native tongue is Afrikaans: a Germanic language which derives primarily from 17th century Dutch, and a variety of other languages. South Africans of British descent are considered a separate ethnic group from Afrikaners, and their first language is English. What is Apartheid? Racial segregation had been an important aspect of the settler society in South Africa since the Dutch first settled in 1652. Created a culture in which hatred, alienation and xenophobia saturated every level of human existence (schools included). Some Major Apartheid Laws The Population Registration Act of 1950 introduced an identity card for all persons over the age of sixteen, stipulating their racial group on the card. Some Major Apartheid Laws The Group Areas Act, passed on 27 April 1950, partitioned the country into different areas, with different areas allocated to different racial groups. This law represented the very heart of apartheid because it was the basis upon which political and social separation was constructed. Some Major Apartheid Laws The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953 prohibited people of different races from using the same public amenities, such as restaurants, public swimming pools, and restrooms. Some Major Apartheid Laws The Bantu Education Act of 1953 crafted a separate education system for Black Africans called the Department of "Bantu" Education. Last years of Apartheid Violence between government and uprising increased during 1980s International opinion turned against South Africa. Western nations no longer fearing the influence of the Soviet Union began to withdraw financially in an effort to pressure the white minority government. Serious political violence between 1985-1995 In an almost constant state of emergency 1990-1991: legal apartheid was abolished Nelson Mandela Invictus movie clip 1962- arrested for anti-apartheid activities, given life sentence. 1990- released at age 71, 27 years later 1994-1999- President of South Africa First South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election Master Harold…and the Boys Athol Fugard (born Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard) South African playwright, novelist, actor, and director who writes in English, best known for his political plays opposing the South African system of apartheid. Master Harold…and the Boys Play is based on Fugard’s life Play relates to a childhood incident that haunted him for years Mother was an Afrikaner who ran the family business. Father frequently ill and permanently handicapped. In 1950, when the play was set, Fugard was 17, the same age as the main character Hally. Setting of Play Rainy afternoon, Willie, Sam and Hally conversing In a café managed by Hally’s mother Port Elizabeth, South Africa Circa 1950’s Living Standards in 1950s In the 1950’s Port Elizabeth was overcrowded with poor black South Africans. Living Standards Unsanitary shanty towns were erected but demolished by officials. Characters Sam and Willie are black South Africans. Hally is a white South African. Sam and Willie are not slaves, they are servants or employees. Living Standards Black South Africans needed “papers” to do just about anything. Every aspect of their lives were controlled. Master Harold…and the Boys Thematic Ideas Boyhood and Manhood Teacher and Student Personal and Political Anger and Hatred Forgiveness and Compassion Human Rights Coming of Age Symbols and Metaphors Dancing Symbols and Metaphors The Kite Symbols and Metaphors The Bench Symbols and Metaphors Rain Symbols and Metaphors Looking up/ Looking down Symbols and Metaphors Social gesturesreflect political climate Titles: “boy”vs. Sam Hally vs. Master Harold Warning! Racism is strongly suggested and directly expressed in this play. The play is a political allegory and represents the larger picture of what was taking place.