here - Phoenix Union High School District

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Background on Apartheid
in South Africa
Master Harold…and the
Boys Unit
South Africa
 Africa is a continent,
not a country.
 South Africa is a
country located on
the tip of that
continent.
Who lives in South Africa?
 According to 2010 estimations:
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Black African: 79.4%
Major ethnic groups include the Zulu, Xhosa, Basehor
(South Sotho), Bapedi (North Sotho), Venda, Tswana,
Tsonga, Swazi and Ndebele, all of which speak Bantu
languages
White: 9.2% (In the first census in 1911, Whites made up
22% of population)
 descend from many ethnic groups: Dutch, German,
French Huguenot, and British. Culturally and
linguistically, they are divided into the Afrikaners, who
speak Afrikaans, and English-speaking groups, many of
whom are descended from British immigrants
Who lives in South Africa?

“Coloured”: 8.8%
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The term "Coloured" is still largely used for the
people of mixed race descended from slaves
brought in from East and Central Africa, the
indigenous Khoisan who lived in the Cape at the
time, indigenous African Blacks, Whites (mostly
the Dutch/Afrikaner and British settlers) as well as
an admixture of Javanese, Malay, Indian,
Malagasy and other European (such as
Portuguese) and Asian blood (such as Burmese).
Indian or Asian: 2.6%
National Party of South Africa
 Was the governing
party of South Africa
from June 4, 1948
until May 9, 1994,
and was disbanded
in 2005.
What is Apartheid?
 An Afrikaans word
meaning “apartness”
 Was the name given
to the program of
racial segregation
implemented in
South Africa after
World War II
Afrikaners
 An ethnic group in Southern Africa
descended from Dutch (including Flemish),
French and German settlers whose native
tongue is Afrikaans: a Germanic language
which derives primarily from 17th century
Dutch, and a variety of other languages.

 South Africans of British descent are
considered a separate ethnic group from
Afrikaners, and their first language is English.
What is Apartheid?
 Racial segregation had
been an important
aspect of the settler
society in South Africa
since the Dutch first
settled in 1652.
 Created a culture in
which hatred,
alienation and
xenophobia saturated
every level of human
existence (schools
included).
Some Major Apartheid Laws
 The Population
Registration Act of
1950 introduced an
identity card for all
persons over the
age of sixteen,
stipulating their
racial group on the
card.
Some Major Apartheid Laws
 The Group Areas Act,
passed on 27 April
1950, partitioned the
country into different
areas, with different
areas allocated to
different racial groups.
This law represented
the very heart of
apartheid because it
was the basis upon
which political and
social separation was
constructed.
Some Major Apartheid Laws
 The Reservation
of Separate
Amenities Act of
1953 prohibited
people of
different races
from using the
same public
amenities, such
as restaurants,
public swimming
pools, and
restrooms.

Some Major Apartheid Laws
 The Bantu
Education Act of
1953 crafted a
separate education
system for Black
Africans called the
Department of
"Bantu" Education.
Last years of Apartheid
 Violence between government and uprising
increased during 1980s
 International opinion turned against South
Africa. Western nations no longer fearing the
influence of the Soviet Union began to
withdraw financially in an effort to pressure
the white minority government.
 Serious political violence between 1985-1995
 In an almost constant state of emergency
 1990-1991: legal apartheid was abolished
Nelson Mandela
Invictus movie clip
 1962- arrested for anti-apartheid
activities, given life sentence.
 1990- released at age 71, 27 years
later
 1994-1999- President of South Africa
 First South African president to be
elected in a fully representative
democratic election
Master Harold…and the Boys
 Athol Fugard (born
Harold Athol Lanigan
Fugard)
 South African playwright,
novelist, actor, and
director who writes in
English, best known for
his political plays
opposing the South
African system of
apartheid.
Master Harold…and the Boys
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Play is based on Fugard’s life
Play relates to a childhood incident that
haunted him for years
Mother was an Afrikaner who ran the family
business. Father frequently ill and
permanently handicapped.
In 1950, when the play was set, Fugard was
17, the same age as the main character Hally.
Setting of Play
 Rainy afternoon, Willie, Sam and Hally
conversing
 In a café managed by Hally’s mother
 Port Elizabeth, South Africa
 Circa 1950’s
Living Standards in 1950s
 In the 1950’s Port
Elizabeth was
overcrowded with
poor black South
Africans.
Living Standards
 Unsanitary shanty
towns were erected
but demolished by
officials.
Characters

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Sam and Willie are black South Africans.
Hally is a white South African.
Sam and Willie are not slaves, they are
servants or employees.
Living Standards
 Black South Africans
needed “papers” to
do just about
anything. Every
aspect of their lives
were controlled.
Master Harold…and the Boys
 Thematic Ideas
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Boyhood and Manhood
Teacher and Student
Personal and Political
Anger and Hatred
Forgiveness and Compassion
Human Rights
Coming of Age
Symbols and Metaphors
Dancing
Symbols and Metaphors
The Kite
Symbols and Metaphors
The Bench
Symbols and Metaphors
Rain
Symbols and Metaphors
Looking up/
Looking down
Symbols and Metaphors

Social gesturesreflect political
climate

Titles:
 “boy”vs. Sam

Hally vs.
Master Harold
Warning!
 Racism is strongly suggested and directly
expressed in this play.
 The play is a political allegory and
represents the larger picture of what was
taking place.
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