Student information sheet ANC centenary 2012 Key words Afrikaans: A language derived from Dutch, recognised as an official language in 1925 and was further developed with the rise of Afrikaner nationalism and apartheid. Afrikaner: Dutch term for ‘native of Africa’ refers to white people who speak the Afrikaans language. Apartheid: Meaning ‘apartness’ in the Afrikaans language, apartheid was a policy of racial segregation introduced by the National Party in 1948. Apartheid laws introduced separate areas for blacks and whites in places such as public buildings, sports grounds and toilets and also divided black South Africans by tribe, each confined to a separate 'homeland'. Bantu: A term used to describe a family of languages spoken mainly in southern and eastern Africa. During apartheid, the term “Bantu” was used as a derogatory term for black Africans. Bantustans: Also known as ‘homelands’, the Bantustans divided black Africans into ten groups; each assigned a homeland. The homelands constituted only 13% of the land for approximately 75% of the population. 3.5 million black Africans were forcibly removed to the Bantustans causing widespread poverty. Civil disobedience: Non-violent actions often used to try and change government policy or legislation without resorting to violence. Until 1961, the ANC leaders, including Nelson Mandela, believed that civil disobedience was the best way to challenge apartheid. National Party: A political party representing the interests of the Afrikaner people. The National Party came to power in 1948 in South Africa and introduced apartheid. Pass (also known as a dompas): Identification papers for African men and women with racial classification and other personal information. The government used passes to restrict movement of black people. Passes criminalised millions of ordinary South Africans. Township: black residential area on the outskirts of South African cities created by the white government. United Democratic Front (UDF): founded in 1983 as an umbrella body that unified numerous unions, youth, religious and sport organisations to oppose apartheid. It affiliated with the ANC and led mass protests and boycotts throughout the 1980s.