# Problem Solving Models - PE

```Problem solving is important for
maintaining a healthy balance
between the dimensions of a person’s
well-being.
 If problems are not resolved then they
can have a major impact on people’s
mental and emotional well-being.
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1. Define the problem as clearly as possible.
2. Identify needs and feelings about the problem.
3. Consider the other people involved in the
problem and what their needs and feelings are
likely to be.
4. Identify a possible solution and how people
are likely to feel as a result of its implementation.
5. Consider what needs to be achieved, the
barriers to this and how these will be overcome,
6. Decide on a suitable time and place to raise
the issue with the other people who have some
involvement in the problem.
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Where ‘another’ person owns the problem
Scenario
My friend (Fiona) thinks her boyfriend (Brad)
is cheating on her.
Apply the steps of the model
Step
Step
Step
Step
Step
Step
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
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The DESC Model
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Can be used to solve personal problems, or a person you
know could use it to solve their problem or you could
respond assertively to a situation. This is a good model to
resolve situations immediately or within a short time.
D = Describe how I am feeling, using “I feel’ statements.
E = Explain the situation as specifically as possible.
S = Specify the nature of the change I want in a positive
way.
C = Describe the positive consequences for me.
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Model 3: An ‘outcome-oriented’ model – an
alternative model for personal problem solving.
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This model can be used as an alternative to
either of the models 1 or 2 when one person
owns the problem. This is a lot like an action
plan – and a person has time to plan their
approach to the problem, and also if the problem
is one that may take some time to resolve.
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STEPS:
states clearly the outcome they want
states the problem as they see it now
decides how to remove barriers that prevent a solution
being reached
firstly, uses their own resources as much as they are able
secondly, finds additional resources or help as needed
when their own resources are insufficient
knows what to look for to show that progress has been
describes how the achieved result fits in with their longterm goal(s)
Model can be used when ‘I’ own the problem
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Model 4: Where two or more people own the
problem
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Identify the problem, with each party
listening carefully to the other side.
Brainstorm some possible solutions without
going as far as trying to evaluate (weigh up or
assess) the situation.
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Find one solution that suits both people which
includes discussing the consequences of such a
decision – this may require negotiation and
compromise
Both parties agree to try out the suggested
solution within a set time frame.
Evaluate the situation to determine whether or
not the conflict has been adequately resolved and
everyone is feeling more positively about the
situation. If not, another solution needs to be
found.
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Steps
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options
PROBLEM
OPTIONS
OUTCOME
CHOICE
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