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Kingdom Protista
Animal like, plant like and fungi like
Objectives

1. Define protist.

2. Describe the hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotes.

3. Explain protists classification.

4. Describe two major ways in which protists obtain energy.

5. List three structures protists use for movement.
Be prepared to answer questions during the class!
What structures and processes protists
should have to be able to do this?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Ywgn730Bgw
Protista

Diverse collection of eukaryotic organisms.

Protozoa, algae, slime molds, water molds.

Animal- like, plants-like, fungi-like.

But they lack the cellular differentiation found in animal, plants and fungi.
Protista

Single celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms.

Generally they don’t fit any other kingdom.

Some are microscopic but others like algae can be meters in lenght.

Protists emerged early in history and some are the oldest eukaryotes.
Brain storm about the size
Why you think protists are bigger in size than bacteria?
This is a very diverse group in forms and they may be unicellular
and multicellular.
Nutrition
Some are autotrophs and make their own food in a similar way as
plants do.
Some are heterotrophs and must get their food eating organisms
or their byproducts.
Others obtain their energy like fungi producing digestive
enzymes.
Movement
Some use flagella to move.
Others use cilia (shorter than flagella).
Others use pseudopods like amoebas.
Animal-like protista
Obtain food and move in an animal-like way but they are not closely related.
Phylum Protozoa:

Move by pseudopoda.

Some have their cell membrane
directly in contact with the
environment while others are covered
in calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide.

Some live freely while other in human
intestines like Entomoeba histolytica.

40,000 species.
Phylum Ciliophora:
1-contractile vacuole
2-digestive vacuole
3-macronucleous
4-micronucleous
5-cytoprocto
6-cytopharynx
7-cytostome
8-cilium

Move by cilia.

Most common species are from the
genus Paramecium.

The white spot disease in fresh water
fish (aquariums) is caused by a parasitic
ciliate that lives under the scales.

8,000 species.
What structures distinguish an amoeba
from a paramecium?
Plant-like protist
They vary in size from tiny unicellular organisms
to multicellular giants (60m).
They are autotrophs that use photosynthesis to
make their own carbohydrates.
Algae
They have chlorophyll a like plants.
Most are aquatic and at some point have flagella.
•
•
•
•
Four basic forms of life:
Unicellular – free living phytoplankton
Colonial – like Volvox
Filamentous multicellular – like Spirogyra
Multicellular complex algae – like kelps and seaweeds.
Examples:
What makes them look like plants?
Phylum Euglenophyta:
Euglenoid

Euglena

Photosynthetic but move like animals.

They lack cell wall.

Common in ponds.

Have flagella.

1,000 species.
Protozoans
Protozoan cell
 What
makes this cell
eukaryotic?
Fungi-like protist
Biologists recognize them in two groups; slime molds and water
molds.
Slime molds live in moist decaying matter and have a two stage
life cycle: mobile amoeba like feeding and stationary fungus-like.
Water molds are fungus like protist composed of branching
filaments found in water bodies but sometimes in soil and as
parasites.
Protists and humans
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