Expected learning • To learn about auto-immune diseases and immunodeficiency disease. What are auto immune diseases? • An auto-immune disease is a disease in which the immune system fails to identify ‘self’ material and makes antibodies against the body’s own tissues. What are auto immune diseases? • Sometimes the ability of the immune system to recognize self from non-self breaks down • When this happens, the body sometimes thinks that some of its own cells are evading the body and attacks them • Some examples are: coeliac disease and MS Coeliac disease An auto immune disease What is coeliac • Coeliac sufferers are unable to break down the gluten found in grains such as wheat. • One of the features of coeliac disease is ‘leaky gut syndrome’. ‘Leaky gut’ syndrome • A small gap appears between the epithelial cells that line the small intestine. • Gluten fragments enter the gap and accumulate on the tissue under the epithelial cells. • Macrophages are then stimulated to remove the fragments Like this!!! How this is removed • Macrophages are released when the gluten is present in the tissue underlying the epithelial cells • Macrophages swallow the gluten, enzymes are released into the vacuole containing the gluten and the gluten is destroyed. Why is this an auto immune disease? • The gluten has connected to the tissue under the epithelial cells, so when the macrophages attack the gluten it is also attacking the epithelial cells. 2010 exam question 2010 exam question answers • Question 7c. Marks 0 1 2 Average % 43 23 34 0.9 • One of: • cytotoxic T cell: kills infected epithelial cells • B cells: these cells differentiate into memory and plasma cells to produce antibodies against epithelial cells • interleukins/cytokines: these stimulate specific immune response against epithelial cells. • Many answers given were unsuitable, such as NK cells, histamines or mast cells. Questions in the time left or homework. • • • • After reading ‘multiple sclerosis: an auto immune disease’ on page 273-274… Answer these questions: What does MS breakdown? What are the effects of this? What are some of the symptoms of MS? Can any damage be repaired? If so, under what circumstances? Reflection question • What was the most interesting thing that you learnt about either auto-immune diseases or immunodefiency diseases?