Week 7, Ed Founds, Sec., 2012 A case study Maslow: • Bio and context • Hierarchy of needs, motivation theory • Strengths and limitations Rogers: • Bio • Theories, therapy and education • Strengths and limitations Humanist education: classroom implications Humanist education: strengths and limitations A job interview question Integrating the person and the content The teacher’s self in the classroom Listen to Dayna’s story and think about the following question in relation to Maslow’s theory of needs and motivation: What would be the most helpful thing the school and the biology teacher could do for Dayna? “marginal man, the Outsider, the rejected person who has no home” (Maslow, 1960, p. 13) Bio and context: • Russian Jew descent Abraham H. Maslow • Tormenting relationship with parents (1908-1970) • Anti-Semitic environment • Student of behaviourist psychology • Influences of A. Adler, E. Fromm, R. Benedict, M. Wertheimer, etc • Personality and motivation of healthy and successful individuals • Humanistic psychology: ‘third-force’ psychology • Enduring influence in psychology, education, and business Limitations of needs at each level Deficit needs Being needs Self-actualisation at the summit of the hierarchy Food, water, sleep, breathing, excretion, etc Physical homeostasis Maslow’s childhood experience Physical protection from harm Financial security Adequate materials for survival Maslow’s experience Love, affection, intimacy ,and belongingness To receive as well as to give Maslow’s experience Respected and valued by others Self-esteem Accurate regards of self Higher than love needs Maslow’s experience Influences from mentors ‘What a man can be, he must be.’ (Maslow, 1943, p.10) Motivation of the psychologically healthy Rank order of relative saliency Deficiency (D) needs and being (B) needs Multiple motivations of behaviour Recognises: • higher needs than physiology as behavioural motivators • affective and emotive aspects of learning Limitations: • Linear sequence and mechanical structure of the hierarchy • What do the homeless get out of being in a football team? • What’s self-esteem to the seriously ill? Brief bio Theories: • Self-actualising tendency “When I look at the world I'm pessimistic, but when I look at people I am optimistic.” • Alienating culture and society Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Therapy: • Non-directive / client-centred • Reflection and active listening "The very essence of the creative is its novelty, and hence we have no standard by which to judge it." Education: • Interpersonal relationship as core business • Positive self-concept as main goal Sources of quotes in callouts: Rogers, 1961 “The good life is a process, not a state of being. It is a direction not a destination.” Understanding the affective and emotive needs of the learner Relationship, not curriculum Non-directive role of teacher Listening, not talking A Grammar classroom, from Sulpizio, 1495 Recognises: Learners as unique individuals Learners’ affective needs Limitations: Polarisation of person and content Neglect of teachers’ whole being in the classroom You are at an interview for a job at a school with a large number of students from lower socio-economic backgrounds. The principal asks, ‘At our school, some of our students live in troubled and sometimes abusive family environments, some others are from refugee or new immigrant families with financial difficulties. Considering the problems these students experience in their lives, how will you engage them in their studies of English / maths / science / music / PE / ...?’ How to be yourself in the classroom Becoming oneself through becoming another Knowing how you communicate Maslow, A. (1943) A theory of human motivation, Psychological Review, 50. Rogers, C. (1961) On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy, Constable, London.