Personal Finance for Everyone …60 mins that will change your future Would you rather…. Text your answer to 37607 333917 Have 3.5 million dollars up front? 333924 or Start with a penny and have your balance double every day for one month? Why we need an automatic plan… People are not rational with financial decisions (susceptible to framing, prospect theory, anchoring, choice architecture, & the default option) Study: the more often you check your portfolio the worse you do Google’s anchoring experiment (3% increase) “Save More Tomorrow” (12% vs 4%) Allocation decisions & 1/n: Scenario 1: Scenario 2: Scenario 3: Fund A: Stocks Fund B: Bonds Fund A: Stocks Fund B: ½ Bonds ½ Stocks Fund A: ½ Bonds ½ Stocks Fund B: Bonds 54% allocation to stocks 73% allocation to stocks 35% allocation to stocks Topics Behavioral Finance Understanding your current situation Credit Scores Retirement, the time value of money, & 401k / 403b Investing 101 Savings accounts & fees Love & Money Home ownership, mortgages, refinancing, & renting Tax strategy Life insurance / Health Insurance Tactical next steps Disclaimer Although I have a passion for these topics, the views expressed are not intended to serve as a forecast, a guarantee of future results, investment recommendations or an offer to buy or sell securities. This should not be interpreted as tax advice and please consult your personal tax advisors if you have any questions. Where my approach/advice comes from Housekeeping Prior to the talk 20 mins - capture your “Net Worth” (all assets & debts) Use Mint.com; connect banking & investment accounts, student/car loans Include property (homes & cars) Homes: zillow.com Cars: edmunds.com 10 mins - understand your credit score Signup for CreditKarma Pull a free credit report from annualcreditreport.com; Experian in Jan, TransUnion in Apr, Equifax in Aug 15 mins – analyze your current investments and get free advice: www.FutureAdvisor.com (optional) 30 mins - create a spending plan (aka budget) Can be in Mint or even Excel Savings must be a part of your plan Understanding your current situation Check Mint often Spend < make Save xx% of your income “Pay yourself first” – schedule savings Debts Credit Cards & student loans BT offers Understand your current allocation & fees Credit Scores Credit Scores have 5 components: (300 850 scale, >720 is good) 1. On Time Payments: 35% (Use Auto-Pay) 2. Credit Utilization: 30% (use < 10%) 3. Length of history: 15% (keep old cards!) 4. Types of credit used: 10% 5. Recent inquiries: 10% (hard vs soft pulls) Credit Scores affect mortgage rates, auto insurance, credit card rates, student loans, apartment rentals “I’ll worry about retirement later…” Time Value of Money is HUGE! Frick & Frack brothers The “Rule of 72” $$ saved from 25-35 > $$ saved 35 on Everyone should have a (ROTH) IRA & 401k! Are you on-track? ~75% of ending salary per year See handout Retirement Accounts IRA 401(k) / 403(b) • 2014 Limit: $5,500 • 2014 Limit: $17,500 • No matching • May get matching • Hold at any institution • Hold at company’s choice firm • Thousands of investment options • Limited choices • Only contribute cash • Only contribute from payroll • Income limits • Different for Roth vs Trad • No income limits • May get a Roth option • Jan 1 – Apr 15 (of following year) open period • Jan 1 – Dec 31 open period Uncle Sam will always get paid Roth • After-tax contributions (pay tax now) Traditional • Pre-tax contributions (get a tax break now) • • Earnings grow tax-free • Roth IRA’s have no RMD’s • • $120k salary, contribute max amount of $17,500 Taxable income now $102,500 28% x $17,500 = $4,900 • Roth IRA income limit: < $114k • Taxed on the way out • “Backdoor Roth” option • Traditional IRA’s have RMD’s • Really depends on tax bracket now vs. retirement • Beliefs on long-term tax brackets / code / law • Solution: have some in each Investing 101 & active vs. passive Stocks, Mutual Funds, ETF’s, Bonds Write down your financial principles / guidelines 20-25% for “fun” if you must Active vs. Passive Investing: research shows ~80-90% of active funds underperform their benchmark 8,000 2,000 500 125 20% most actively traded accounts performed much worse -men worse than women Past fund performance has very little predictive power to future performance! In fact, expense ratios are the best predictor Expense Ratios (the enemy) Industry average (0.80% 2.50%) Low cost options (0.06% 0.50%) Get angry…it’s your money! Use the calculator “It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends on his not understanding it.” – Upton Sinclair Asset allocation & rebalancing With proper allocation, you should reduce risk (volatility) and outperform the S&P 500 Rebalancing: meeting long-term policy target weights Use it as a disciplined way of buying low and selling high “..shunning the loved & embracing the unloved. Most people do the opposite.” (Swensen) “Contrarian behavior lies at the heart of most successful investing programs.” (Swensen) Example: 1990-2012 portfolio: +0.5% difference in return, -2% difference in volatility My target allocation: Savings accounts & fees ATM reimbursements Never pay monthly service fees for savings/checking CapitalOne 360: doubled-ended bonus emergency fund “Direct deposit” & ACH pushes Home ownership & mortgages Up to a $300/month because of credit score Real estate is a key component Consider NOT holding your mortgage with the same bank as your investments Typically 20% down, qualify for a home 3x your annual gross income Closing costs, points Refinancing Being a landlord can be tough! Rent Rent : Income < 30% (rule of 36) Impact in high-rent markets (SF / NYC) Have rental package ready Credit pull Ask for a copy of credit report Security deposit & interest Zillow’s “zestimate” Tax strategy Look for ways to reduce your taxes Traditional TSP/ 401k / IRA Mortgage interest (& property management fees) Education expenses Consider capital gains (realize gains if you ever find yourself in the 10 or 15% tax bracket. 0% long term gains) IRA conversions Donate to charity with appreciated stock Hire a professional – taxes are “grey” – ask questions! Life insurance Typically don’t need it until you have a family, but some people “lock” it in while they are healthy Term vs. Whole $500k for $42/month Nice way to leave a gift Auto & Health Other random advice… Never go without health insurance! “Exotic” or “alternative” asset classes Careful with your contracts Always look for discounts Cell phone bills (15%-20%) AAA, movies, restaurants, museums, parks Driving habits Avoid buying a new car Remember: smart investing is not very exciting, but it is very rewarding! Fatwallet Cash Back Tactical next steps Automate your savings (pay yourself first) Open a (ROTH) IRA Enroll in your company’s 401k Stick to low-cost index funds Help a friend (ER) or 19 yr old cousin Company stock plans Student loans vs. saving Paying down student loans vs. saving for retirement Max matching contributions Consider interest rates loan rate: <2% Invest >10% pay down 2%-10% calculate Both are urgent! Save some to build the habit Consider tax deduction Windows are closed for good! Grandma’s inheritance My favorite personal finance resources Fatwallet Finance Forums Bogleheads Blogs: Mr. Money Mustache, Oblivious Investor Networth IQ | Investopedia *Bonus Material* Tax Loss Harvesting the Credit Card game Questions?