Long term effects of exercise on Musculoskeletal system

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P3/4 M2- Know the Long term
effects of exercise on the body
systems
• Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in
stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting
heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood volume; reduction
in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased
aerobic fitness
• Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength;
increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of
mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat;
increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid
• Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased
stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage;
increased production of synovial fluid
• Respiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in
minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles;
increase in oxygen diffusion rate
• Energy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes;
increased use of fats as an energy source
Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium
stores; increased stretch in ligaments;
increased thickness of hyaline cartilage;
increased production of synovial fluid
Skeletal System
• Increased mineral content
– Basically your bones get stronger the more that you use them.
– Exercise puts stress on the bones
– This encourages the laying down of bony plates and calcium salts
along the lines of stress
– This increases the tensile strength of the bones
– It also increases the strength of the supportive tissue around the joint
(Tendons and Ligaments)
• Exercise that increases bone strength:
– Weight bearing exercise, such as tennis,
football, running, basketball
– Strength Training, such as Weight training,
circuit training
Skeletal System
• Hyaline Cartilage
– Becomes thicker with regular exercise
– It is the most common type of cartilage in
the body
– It protects the bones from wear at the end of
the joints
– Provides shock absorption, such as
between the vertebrae
• Ligaments and Tendons
•
This means that there is more
cushioning and shock absorption
after regular exercise.
– Both increase in flexibility
with regular exercise.
• This means stronger joints,
and more powerful muscular
contraction.
Muscular responses
to exercise
Muscular system: hypertrophy;
increase in tendon strength;
increase in myoglobin stores;
increased number of mitochondria;
increased storage of glycogen and
fat; increased muscle strength;
increased tolerance to lactic acid
Muscle cell
• Aerobic exercise, for example a
series of long runs, or cycle rides
would cause changes to the
structure of the muscle fibres
– Specifically, slow twitch
fibres would increase in size
(Hypertrophy)
• Perhaps up to 22%
• This is due to the aerobic exercise
putting stress on the slow twitch fibres
(What type?)
– Would give greater potential for
aerobic energy production
• (What effect would this have on the
performance of footballers?)
Mitochondria
• Aerobic exercise has been
seen to provide an increase
in size and number of
mitochondria
– 40-100%
• Mitochondria are the basis of our
aerobic output
– (What effect would this have on
players performance in the
scenario described in the task?)
Oxidative enzymes
• Oxidative Enzymes
• It is suggested that Aerobic training increases the activity of oxidative enzymes
– These break down food to release energy
• So we would be able to
produce more energy from our
food
• Couple this with the
hypertrophy of our slow twitch
muscles, and we can supply
energy and perform for longer
sustained periods
– How would this benefit
players?
Myoglobin
• Myoglobin is the
substance within the
muscle that carries
Oxygen to the
Mitochondria
– Aerobic training can
increase myoglobin
content by up to 80%
• More Myoglobin means
more Oxygen transport
• This improves the
efficiency of aerobic
energy production.
Changes
• All of these changes will
mean that more Oxygen can
be used by the body
– This raises the anaerobic
threshold, and means that the
onset of fatigue is delayed
• This would have some
serious benefits for first team
players.
– Maximum Oxygen uptake is
largely genetic, but can rise
by up to 10% with training.
Hypertrophy
• Training at high intensity, such as weight training,
will produce hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres
– This means that
the muscle fibres
become larger
– The increase in
size would cause
greater strength
and power
– What benefits
would this bring to
Oxford United’s 1st
team squad?
Increase in levels of ATP and
PC
• Weight training will increase the
• We need Adenosine
Triphosphate (ATP) and
Creatine Phosphate (PC) to
work at high intensities
– Such as maximal sprinting
amount of ATP-PC in our
muscles
– This means that the system will
last slightly longer, and would be
able to maintain a maximal sprint
for 9 seconds instead of 8
seconds.
– Explain how a player who had
skipped the weight sessions
Darren Patterson had added to
the training schedule may be at a
disadvantage in a 5-a-side
training game.
– Would DP notice??
Glycolytic capacity
• Training at high intensities for over
60 seconds increases the
glycolytic capacity of the muscle
• This improves the muscles ability
to break down glycogen (to
provide energy) without Oxygen
– Consequently a player can exercise
for longer at a high intensity without
feeling tired.
– Would this be of benefit to DP’s
strikers for examples?
Buffering capacity
• By following an anaerobic
training programme
– The buffering capacity of the
body increases significantly
• This is the ability of the
muscles to tolerate lactic acid
– This means that the muscles can still function
with a high level of acidity (Lactic Acid), and
therefore keep working for longer at high
intensities
• What benefit would this provide for
midfielders?
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