Examine the spatial pattern of economic activity

Examine the spatial pattern of
economic activity
Examine the zoning of urban and
suburban functions and the internal
structure of the CBD
What factors influence the location of
What different land uses are there in
urban areas?
Prepare annotated diagrams of
Harris and Ulman
Urban structure
• A combination of form and function
• As towns grow different functions group together
forming functional zones.
• The shape or form is referred to as urban
• Also affected by topography, climate and human
Burgess, concentric zone model 1924
• Based on concepts of competition and
• Assumption that within a city people compete for
limited space
• Only those who could afford them gained the
best locations for homes and businesses
• Therefore poorest groups had the least choice
and left with the worst locations.
• Functional zones are concentric and different in
terms of age and character.
Hoyt sector model (1939)
• Extension of Burgess
• Agreement that high income groups bought up
best residential land
• Belief that as the city expanded, residential areas
of similar socio economic status would grow
outwards from the CBD in patterns of wedges or
• Sectors develop because some outlying areas
have better access to the CBD than others. E.g.
high class residential areas grew up along
suburban railway lines.
Harris and Ullman (1945)
• Challenge to the idea of a single CBD
• Suggestion that a town might grow around a
number of different nucleii
• E.g. former villages swallowed by city growth
and new suburban shopping centres
• Some activities locate near each other – e.g.
shops so that customers can compare prices
• Some land uses repel others e.g. high value
housing not found close to manufacturing
• Some activities can pay higher rents than
others e.g. offices and shops can afford high
rents so locate in the CBD, but manufacturing
cannot afford so locate on cheaper sites.
Explain how economic activity can be
explained by a land use model.
• P391 Waugh
• Is the economic and commercial core of the
• Fig 11.22 P302 (Course companion) shows the
features of a CBD.
• Docks, import yards and processing facilities;
• Lai Chi Kok, Hung Hom, Kennedy town through to Wanchai along
the Northern coast, Tsing Yi, down from Tai Kok Tsui behind the
typhoon shelter.
• Oil refinery and ship building;
• Southern part of Tsing Yi.
• Manufacturing factories;
• Aberdeen (multistory factories), Kwun Tong+ Kowloon Bay (formally
airport, includes large warehouses), Tuen Mun, Chai Wan, Shun Kei
• Science/cyber parks;
• Cyberport, also between Sha Tin and Tai Po and see website
• Retail;
• Causeway Bay, Harbour City TST
• Banking and Commercial;
• Wanchai through to Central and Mid-levels