RECAP THE CORE OF THE CBD CONSISTS OF: 1. 2. 3. 4. What are the characteristics of the CBD? CHARACTERISTICS DESCRIPTIONS Intensive land use Multi-storied buildings: highest retail productivity per unit area, characteristics by higher order functions. Find images of the HK CBD that illustrates each of these characteristics. Locate each photograph on a map. Extended vertical scale Growth mainly vertical. Limited horizontal scale Greatest horizontal dimension seldom exceed walking scale. Limited horizontal change Gradual horizontal change, with slums and undesirables limited to a few blocks. Concentrated day time population Location of highest concentration foot traffic; absence of permanent residential population. Focus of mass transit Major mass transit interchange location for entire city. Centre of specialised functions Extensive use of office space for executive and policy making functions: centre of specialised professional and business services. http://www.rgs.org/NR/rdonlyres/AB1B3354-8E38-42BA-892C-9D542DDC7FF7/0/FW_Toolkit_urban1big.jpg What are the 4 core land uses in the FRAME? Zone of Discard A haven for the homeless and social dropouts and as an area for adult entertainment. Common functions include pawnshops, cheap bars, low-grade cafes, cheap movie houses, repair shops, gun shops and low quality consumer mechanise. Find images of the HK FRAME that illustrates some of these characteristics. Locate each photograph on your map. But it isn’t that simple… Zone of Assimilation – areas into which the CBD (and its characteristics) is expanding. Process known as… GENTRIFICATION This back-to-the-city trend is taking place that has spurred a revitalisation of once-dying urban cores (e.g. Detroit). It causes the recycling of buildings and streetscapes but in the process causes a rise in land values that push out existing residents from low-cost housing. Find a suitable location(s) in HK that can be considered the Zone of Assimilation. Select an appropriate image and again add to your map. https://suite.io/james-gibson/5p0r2ga 1. Yau Tsim Mong 2. Kowloon City 3. Kwun Tong 4. Wong Tai Sin 5. Sham Shui Po 6. Kwai Tsing 7. Tsuen Wan 8. Sha Tin 9. Tai Po 10. Yuen Long 11. Tuen Mun 12. Central and Western 13. Wan Chai 14. Eastern Island 15. Southern Island 16. Islands http://www.spatioepi.com/m0101.asp Why do these economic changes occur? (a) Changing economic structure Some functions become obsolete e.g. __________________. Some functions require more space e.g. __________________. (b) Deteriorating conditions of buildings Many 18th century buildings still stands in some cities. Some were given attention in terms of conservation efforts while others were only left to rot. (c) Outdated and inefficient street and utilities layout Street layout and utilities system (sewerage, power and water) not designed with the modern city in mind. Road development constrained by densely built-up area (d) Population shift There is reduced rate of rural migration due to an alternative growth pole City will decline and deteriorate over time (e) Rising cost and competition from new users Economic expansion and the modernisation of the economy shift the economic focus from farms, mines and ports to other functions such as finance and banking. The emergence of high value, high turnover land users pushes out traditional occupants. (f) Increase in number of functions As more and more functions began to emerge, the CBD become too complex to be considered as a single entity. As a result, some form of fragmentation had to take place.