The Independence of India

What is now
Sri Lanka
 India was a colony of
Great Britain
 1757-1857 India is run by the East India Tea Company
 1858-1947 British Government rules India using royal
governors and viceroys
 British use raw materials
from India to build their
 INC – Indian National Congress
 Formed in 1885
 Mostly Hindu
 After independence, became India’s main political party
 Muslim League
 Formed in 1906
 Political party in Pakistan and Bangladesh
 More than 1 million Indian troops
serve in British Army during war
 Indian wheat and cotton used in
war effort
 1917 British promise to work
toward self-government
(same year as the Balfour
 Why did Indians call for independence after World
War I?
 Indians felt that the British did not deliver the
significant reforms promised during the war as
acknowledged for their services. Amritsar massacre
intensified dissatisfication.
 Harsh laws enacted after
WWI leading to many arrests
 British pit Hindus vs. Muslims
 In Amritsar, all large gatherings are banned
 British threaten to use force
 10,000 unarmed demonstrators in walled garden
 Local British commander decides to set example
 Blocks entrance and opens fire when crowd doesn’t leave
 400 Dead, 1200 Wounded
 Increased desire for Independence, lacked unity.
 Known as “The Mahatma” (great soul)
 Born in 1869 (4 yrs after Civil War)
 Family was middle class, Hindu
 Married at 13 in an arranged marriage
 Went to college in London, became a lawyer
 1893-1914 lives in South Africa and fights against
 Returns to India during WW I and begins “fighting”
for independence
 Pacifism
 Civil Disobedience
 Henry David Thoreau
 Martin Luther King Jr.
 Nelson Mandela
Joins with INC to work toward Indian independence
Urged “non-c00peration”
Ahimsa, nonviolence and reverence of life, “love”
Arrested in 1922 for sedition, served 2 years
Series of arrests and hunger strikes
Fought to end harsh treatment of Untouchables, members
of the lowest class
 Urged Indians to boycott British
made goods
Only wore Homespun clothing,
symbol during protests was the
spinning wheel
Believed that denying British the
profits of colonialism would lead
to independence
1930 – Protest against salt tax
charged to citizens
Marched 240 miles to the sea to
make salt
British arrest 60,000
 What methods did Indians under Gandhi use to resist
British rule?
 They staged boycotts and other nonviolent protests.
They increased their own industries so India would be
more self-sufficient.
 What did the salt march symbolize?
 Indian protest against oppression.
 1935 – Government of India Act
 Increased suffrage
 Limited self-government
 Hindu – Muslim Disputes
 Hindus outnumbered Muslims 3-1
 Controlled 7 out of 11 provinces
 Muslims wanted a separate country
 INC led by Jawarharal Nehru and Gandhi wanted one
united India
 British agree to grant independence
after WW II
 Violence continues between Hindus
and Muslims
 1947 Independence achieved
 India
 West Pakistan and East Pakistan
 Migration ensued, over 100,000 deaths
 India
 2nd most populated country – over 1 Billion People
 Economic power
 US imports many Indian goods
 Many US jobs outsourced to India (technology)
 Nuclear Weapons
 Pakistan
 US Ally?
 Home of Bin Laden?
 Nuclear Weapons