CH 10 Sections 1,2, and 3. Regional and Global Issues, Looking to the Future, and Art and Literature. Before Indian independence, Kashmir was its own nation under a Hindu prince with a majority Muslim population. When Muslims rebelled, its leader asked India for help, and India occupied the nation. The UN brokered a cease-fire and the nation was split with Pakistan getting 1/3 and India the remainder. Both Pakistan and India have nuclear weapons. Because the two nations have been to war three times, this is a volatile situation. Non-Alignment India refused military alliance with either the US or the USSR during the Cold War. They sought friendly relations with China. Pakistan was strongly anti-Communist and thus joined military alliance with the US to stop Soviet expansion. It received much military and financial aid from the US. As an Islamic nation, Pakistan has sought close ties with Iran and Turkey., and accepted aid from the oilrich Persian Gulf nations Environmental issues • The deforestation of the Himalayas. • Narmada Valley Project. • Accident at Bhopal. • Nuclear accidents, fertilizers, and insecticides that can hurt the environment. BY the early 200’s, South Asia had 1.4 billion people. India’s population will overtake China by 2025. • Medical improved so people don’t often die from cholera, smallpox, and malaria. Infant mortality has declined. This leads to population density and a strain on limited resources. Asoka ordered building of stupas (dome-shaped burial mounds, housing remains of Buddha or other saints). Hindu sculptors covered every inch of temples with carvings. Indian sculptors mingled Buddhist and Hindu themes. Literature Two epic Indian poems are the Mahabharata and Ramayana. They contain many verses and important Hindu ideas. Indian Dance Every movement in Indian dance has meaning. Through eye, head and hand they tell stories. Dancers train for years to learn hundreds of hand movements called mudras. Movies are the most popular performing art in India. Studios turn out more than 900 per year.