1920s New Attitudes vs. Fundamentalists 3/28/11 Nativism resurges • Immigrants and demobilized military men and women competed for the same jobs during high unemployment and an increased cost of living. • Sacco and Vanzetti case • The idea of eugenicsinequalities were inherited. Nativism Resurges • The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) led the movement to restrict immigration. – – – – African Americans Catholics Jews Immigrants • By 1924, the KKK had almost 4 million members • Eventually scandals led to the decline of the Klan by the late 1920s Controlling Immigration • Harding signed the Emergency Quota Act – Limited immigration to 3% of the pop. already living in the US – Heavy discrimination against southern and eastern Euros. • The National Origins Act of 1924 – Made immigration restriction permanent. – Lowered to 2% • Immigration acts of 1921 and 1924 reduced the labor pool in the US. – Mexican immigrants began pouring into the US between 1914 and the end of the 1920s after the Mex. Revolution. The New Morality • • • • Challenged traditional ideas Glorified youth Glorified personal freedom Marriage, work, and pleasure affected the way people lived The New Morality- Women • Women broke from families • Entered the workforce • Earned their own living • Attended college • Advances in science, law, medicine, and literature. The New Morality- Women • Fashion drastically changed • The Flapper – – – – Young Dramatic Stylish unconventional The Fundamentalist Movement • Some feared the new morality – From rural towns – Religious movement called Fundamentalism – Feared social decline The Fundamentalist Movement • Rejected Darwin’s theory of evolution • 1925 Tennessee passed the Butler Act made it illegal to teach evolution instead of creation. The Fundamentalist Movement • Came to a head at the Scopes Trial – Biology teacher tested Butler – Arrested, put on trial – Found guilty, later overturned – Many fundamentalists retired from activism – http://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=hV840sE iqYY Prohibition • Which amendment? • 18th- ratified in 1919 • Volstead Act made the enforcement of Pro. The responsibility of the US Treasury Dept. • Speakeasies- secret bars • Crime became big business • 1933- 21st brought an end to pro. • http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=DLulkV8ZWIo Arts and Literature • began challenging traditional ideas • began to search for meaning in the world. • The artistic and unconventional, or Bohemian, lifestyle of Manhattan’s Greenwich Village and Chicago’s South Side attracted artists and writers. Art and Literature • European influence • Artist chose to express themselves in very diverse way – Art deco, precisionism, surrealism, expressionism Art and Literature • Writing styles changed – Poet Carl Sandburg used common speech to glorify the Midwest – Playwright Eugene O’Neill’s work focused on a search for meaning Popular Culture • The economic prosperity of the 1920s allowed many Americans leisure time • Radio, movies, and newspapers gave rise to a new interest in sports. – Babe Ruth – Jack Dempsey • First “talking” picture – The Jazz Singer • Mass media helped unify the nation and spread new ideas and attitudes The Harlem Renaissance • “The Great Migration” occurred when hundreds of thousands of A.A. moved from the rural South to the industrial cities of the North. • NYC’s Harlem- A.A. created environments that stimulated artistic development, racial pride, a sense of community, and political organization which led to a massive creative outpouring of arts. The Harlem Renaissance • Claude McKay- 1st important writer • Langston Hughes- became the leading voice of the A.A. experience in the US • Louis Armstrong- jazz • Cotton Club- nightspot – Duke Ellington- musician • Bessie Smith- singer The Rise of New Industries • Mass production increased the supply of goods and decreased costs. • Assembly line- $850 > $490 > $295 • Charles Lindbergh made the first transatlantic flight which gained support for commercial flight. • NBC and CBS established permanent radio stations. The Consumer Society • New roles as consumers • More people bought on credit or installment plans • More professional managers and engineers. Expanded the middle class The Farm Crisis • Farmers did not share in the prosperity of the 1920s. • Prices and demand dropped while farmers’ costs increased. • President Coolidge vetoed a bill to aid farmers twice. • Farmers remained in recession throughout the 1920s.