Engaging English Language Learners 2/25/14 8

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Next Generation Science
Standards and Common Core:
Engaging English Language
Learners
Okhee Lee
New York University
NYC-2/LI
Adelphi University
February 21, 2014
Topics
Topic 1: Student Demographics
 National
 New York State
 New York City
Topic 2: Disciplinary Practices in CCSS and
NGSS with a Focus on ELLs
Topic 3: Content and Language
Topic 1:
Student Demographics
Four Accountability Groups
1. Economically disadvantaged students
2. Students from major racial and ethnic groups
3. Students with disabilities
4. Limited English proficient (LEP) students (the federal term)
Poverty
of students are eligible for free or
reduced price lunch in 2010
of children live in poverty in 2010
U.S. Census Bureau
National Center for Children in Poverty
NYC Department of Education
Race
under 19 years old are racial minorities
in 2010
U.S. Census Bureau
NYC Department of Education
Students with Disabilities
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA):
of students ages 3-21 received
special education services in 2009
in 2010
in 2010
National Center for Education Statistics
NYC Department of Education
English Language Learners
speak a language
other than English as primary language at home in 2011
participate in programs for ELLs in 2010
National Center for Education Statistics
NYC Department of Education
Take Home Message
• The school-aged population is becoming increasingly
diverse.
• Science achievement gaps persist.
• Academically rigorous standards and assessments
are expected of all students in English language arts,
math, and science.
Discussion
What information about changing demographics:
1. surprise you?
2. urge you to think about your own practices?
Topic 2:
Disciplinary Practices in CCSS and
NGSS with a Focus on ELLs
How can teachers promote CCSS and NGSS
while supporting language development for
ELLs?
Understanding Language Initiative at
Stanford University
http://ell.stanford.edu/
How Language Develops
• Rich contexts – desire and opportunity to
engage and contribute
• Multiple opportunities to hear and use
(language)
• Appropriate supports
• Acceptance of “flawed” language
How Science Understanding
Develops
• Rich contexts – desire and opportunity to
engage and contribute
• Multiple opportunities to hear and use (science
ideas)
• Appropriate supports
• Acceptance of “flawed” language; for example
non-scientific language
Promoting Both Science and
Language Learning for ELLs
• ELs learn academic content as they participate
in classroom discourse
• ELs learn language as they engage with
academic content
• Focusing on both text and discourse gives ELs
opportunities for extended engagement with
complex ideas
Disciplinary Practices in CCSS and
NGSS
• Raise the bar for content (academically rigorous)
• Raise the bar for language (language intensive)
• Call for a high level of classroom discourse (oral
and written) across all content areas for all
students
Premise: what students do with language as they
engage in content area learning
Disciplinary Practices:
From a Content Perspective
• Raise the bar for content (academically rigorous)
• Call for a high level of classroom discourse (oral
and written) across all content areas for all
students
CCSS ELA and Literacy
Student Capacities
Key Features
1. Demonstrate independence
2. Build strong content knowledge
3. Respond to the varying
demands of audience, task,
purpose, and discipline
4. Comprehend as well as critique
5. Value evidence
6. Use technology and digital
media strategically and capably
7. Understand other perspectives
and cultures
Reading: Text complexity and the
growth of comprehension
Writing: Text types, responding to
reading, and research
Speaking & Listening: Flexible
communication & collaboration
Language: Conventions, effective
use, and vocabulary
CCSS Math
Mathematical Practices
Core Ideas
1. Make sense of problems and
persevere in solving them
2. Reason abstractly and
quantitatively
3. Construct viable arguments and
critique the reasoning of others
4. Model with mathematics
5. Use appropriate tools
strategically
6. Attend to precision
7. Look for and make use of
structure
8. Look for and express regularity
in repeated reasoning
K-5
Counting & Cardinality (K)
Operations & Algebraic Thinking
Number & Operations
Fractions (3)
Measurement & Data
Geometry
6-8
Ratios & Proportional Relationships
Number System
Expressions & Equations
Functions (8)
Geometry
Statistics & Probability
9-12
Number & Quantity
Algebra
Functions
Modeling
Geometry
Statistics & Probability
NGSS
Science Standards
Science & Engineering
Practices
1. Ask questions (for science) and
define problems (for engineering)
2. Develop and use models
3. Plan and carry out investigations
4. Analyze and interpret data
5. Use mathematics and
computational thinking
6. Construct explanations (for
science) and design solutions
(for engineering)
7. Engage in argument from
evidence
8. Obtain, evaluate, and
communicate information
Crosscutting Concepts
1. Patterns
2. Cause and effect
3. Scale, proportion and quantity
4. Systems and system models
5. Energy and matter
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change
Disciplinary Core Ideas
1. Physical Sciences
2. Life Sciences
3. Earth and Space Sciences
4. Engineering, Technology and
Applications of Science
SCIENCE
MATH
M1. Make sense of
S1. Ask questions &
S2. Develop
problems & persevere
define problems
and use models
in solving them
S5. Use mathematics & S3. Plan & carry out
investigations
computational thinking
M6. Attend to precision
S4. Analyze &
M4. Model with mathematics
M7. Look for & make
interpret data
use of structure
M8. Look for & express
E2. Build strong content knowledge
regularity in repeated
E4. Comprehend as well as critique
reasoning
E5. Value evidence
M2. Reason abstractly & quantitatively
M3. Construct viable argument & critique reasoning of others
S7. Engage in argument from evidence
S6. Construct explanations & design solutions
S8. Obtain, evaluate & communicate information
E6. Use technology & digital media
M5. Use appropriate tools strategically
E1.Demonstrate independence
E3. Respond to the varying demands of
audience, talk, purpose, & discipline
ELA
E7. Come to understand other
perspectives & cultures
Source: Working Draft, 12-6-11
by Tina Cheuk, ell.stanford.edu
Disciplinary Practices:
From a Language Perspective
• Raise the bar for language (language intensive)
• Call for a high level of classroom discourse (oral
and written) across all content areas for all
students
Old Paradigm
Content
Vocabulary
Grammar
Native-like fluency
Language
New Paradigm
Content
Discourse
Text (complex text)
Explanation
Argumentation
Text structure
Sentence structure
Vocabulary
Grammar
Language
Language
Discourse
Text (complex text)
Explanation
Argumentation
Text structures
Sentence structures
Vocabulary
Grammar
ELA
Questions? Comments?
Topic 3:
Content and Language
How can teachers promote CCSS and
NGSS while supporting language
development for ELLs?
Development 1:
Science and Language in Relation to
NGSS
• This article introduced the conceptual framework for
language use in the science classroom as students
engage in language-intensive science and engineering
practices.
• When students, especially ELLs, are adequately
supported to “do” specific things with language, both
science learning and language learning are promoted.
Lee, O., Quinn, H., & Valdés, G. (2013). Science and language for English language
learners in relation to Next Generation Science Standards and with implications for
Common Core State Standards for English language arts and mathematics.
Educational Researcher, 42(4), 223-233.
NGSS Science and Engineering Practices
and Language Functions
CCSS ELA and Literacy Practices and
Language Functions
CCSS ELA and Literacy Practices and
Language Functions (Continued)
CCSS Mathematical Practices and
Language Functions
Features of Science Classroom Language
Small Group Activity
1. Form a small group of 3 or 4 members.
2. Select one disciplinary practice from the CCSS
for ELA/literacy, CCSS for math, or NGSS.
3. Unpack this practice in terms of (a) analytical
tasks and (b) receptive and language functions.
4. Share your group work with the whole group.
Development 2:
English Language Proficiency
Development (ELPD) Framework
• To communicate to ELL stakeholders in states the language
practices that ELLs must acquire for academic learning in
CCSS and NGSS and for second language acquisition more
generally
• To provide guidance to states on how to use the expectations
of the CCSS and NGSS as tools to create and evaluate
ELP/ELD standards
Pimentel, S., Castro, M., Cook, G., Kibler, A., Lee, O., Pook, D., Stack, L.,
Valdés, G., & Walqui, A. (2012). Framework for English language proficiency
development standards corresponding to the Common Core State Standards
and the Next Generation Science Standards. Washington, DC: Council of
Chief State School Officers.
English Language Proficiency
Development (ELPD) Framework
• NGSS (completed)
 Science & engineering practices and language functions
 Discipline-specific language in the K-12 science classroom
• CCSS ELA
 ELA practices and language functions
 Discipline-specific language in the K-12 ELA classroom
• CCSS Math
 Math practices and language functions
 Discipline-specific language in the K-12 math classroom
California ELD Standards
New York State Bilingual Common Core Initiative
Development 3:
English Language Proficiency (ELP)
Standards
• To highlight and elaborate on the critical language,
knowledge about language, and skills using language
that are:
 in CCSS for ELA/literacy and math and NGSS
 necessary for ELLs to succeed in school
Council of Chief State School Officers. (in press). English language
proficiency (ELP) standards. Washington, DC.
Shafer Willner, L. (2013). Initial tour of the 2013 English language proficiency
standards. Developed by WestEd for the Council of Chief State School
Officers. Washington, DC: Author.
English Language Proficiency (ELP)
Standards
1. Construct meaning from oral presentations and literary and informational
text through grade-appropriate listening, reading, and viewing
2. Participate in grade-appropriate oral and written exchanges of information,
ideas, and analyses, responding to peer, audience, or reader comments
and questions
3. Speak and write about grade-appropriate complex literary and
informational texts and topics
4. Construct grade-appropriate oral and written claims and support them with
reasoning and evidence
5. Conduct research and evaluate and communicate findings to answer
questions or solve problems
6. Analyze and critique the arguments of others orally and in writing
7. Adapt language choices to purpose, task, and audience when speaking
and writing
8. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in oral presentations and
literary and informational text
9. Create clear and coherent grade-appropriate speech and text
10. Make accurate use of standard English to communicate in gradeappropriate speech and writing
Development 4:
ELPD Framework: Teacher’s Guide to
the Science and Math Resources
• To develop and validate a teacher’s guide that
explains how the resources within the ELPD
Framework can be used to generate classroom
materials and design learning activities that support
ELs’ engagement with NGSS and CCSS math
Cook, G. (2013-2015). Teacher’s guide to the mathematics and science
resources of the ELPD Framework. National Science Foundation, Discovery
Research K-12.
Development 5:
Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)
• Kenji Hakuta: “Constructive Classroom Conversations:
Mastering Language for the Common Core State Standards”
• This MOOC enablse teachers to promote constructive
classroom discourse as students, especially ELLs, engage
in the CCSS
• Plans are under way to offer further MOOCs, including one
on science classroom discourse in the context of the NGSS
• As part of course assignments, the initial MOOC collected a
large volume of teacher-recorded and transcribed samples
of classroom discourse submitted by participants throughout
the nation
Questions? Comments?
Take Home Messages
• High academic rigor through the NGSS for all
students, including ELLs
• Both language demands and learning
opportunities through the NGSS for all students,
including ELLs
• A new set of teachers’ knowledge and practices
to enable all students, particularly ELLs, learn
science according to the NGSS
Thank you!
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