Chapter 26 Section 4

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Chapter 26 Section 4
The Continuing Cold War
Joseph McCarthy
 Senator from Wisconsin
 Warned of a Communist
infestation in the U.S.
Government
 Claimed that as many as 205
communist spies were working for
the Secretary of State
 Sparked anti-communist hysteria
Textbooks destroy him, but
remember…
Alger Hiss was a
communist spy…working for the
state department…
The Rosenbergs were just
found guilty of spying
 Accused of being opportunistic,
The Soviets just built the
atomic and hydrogen bombs with
information obtained by spies
 Senate formally condemns him
Is it possible he was on to
something?
a bully, and a liar
for being reckless
 Villlianized
Note: Letters released by the
former Soviet Union in 1995 support
many of McCarthy’s claims
Joseph McCarthy
 Something else to keep in
mind…
 McCarthy was a member
of the Senate Permanent
Subcommittee on
Investigations
 Their job was to
investigate the federal
government
Venona Project
 Alger Hiss-State department
 Released in 1995
 Top secret document that
exposed Communist spies in
the U.S.
 Made public after the
collapse of the Soviet Union
 Harry Dexter White- Asst. Sec
of Treatury
 Lauchin Currie-Personal
assistant to FDR
 Laurence Duggan-head of
the Latin American desk at
the State Department
 Frank Coe- U.S.
representative on the IMF
 Solomon Adler- Senior
Treasury department official
 Klaus Fuchs- Top atomic
scientist
 Duncan Lee- Senior aid to
the head of the OSS
McCarthyism
Making
accusations
against
others that
can not be
proven or
supported
 It is said McCarthy never
found any spies
 T.A. Bisson
 Mary Jane Keeney
 Cedric Belfrage
 Solomon Adler
 Franz Neumann
 Leonard Mins
 Gustavo Duran
 William Remington
Cold War in Asia
 1953- Eisenhower brings the
Korean War to an end
 With Stalin dead, and new,
more moderate leaders in
the Soviet Union, a solution
was more easily achieved
 U.S. begins to aid France in
recovering their lost colony
in Vietnam
 Vietnam eventually
separated, and the U.S.
aids the non-communist
South
Cold War in The Middle
East
 Israel created in 1948 in
Palestine with help of the
UN
 Arab assaulted the new
nation and their UN allies
 Saw the territory as theirs
 The U.S. supported Israel,
while the Soviets generally
supported the Arabs
Cold War in the Middle
East
 U.S. backed groups that
overthrew a nationalistic,
communist-sympathizing
leader in Iran in exchange
for a pro-American Shah of
Iran
Cold War in the Middle
East
 Suez Crisis
 U.S. wanted to help Egypt
build a large dam along
the Nile River
 Turns out the Egyptian
President, Gamal Nasser
was also seeking Soviet
Support
 U.S. cut off aid
 Egypt closes British-owned
Suez Cana as a response
 Vital for trade
 Britain, France, and Egypt
attack Egypt to open canal
 Soviets threaten Western
Europe
 Eisenhower urges NATO
allies to withdraw from
Egypt
 Canal opened back up
 But under Egyptian
control
Eisenhower Doctrine
 The United States would aid
any Middle eastern nation
being threatened by
Communism.
Cold War in Latin
America
 Supported pro-American
governments in Latin
America
 Suppressed Communist
influences
 1947 Rio Pact with 18 Western
Hemisphere nations as a
regional defense alliance
 1948- Formed Organization of
American States to increase
cooperation in the
hemisphere
 1954- U.S. backed rebels
overthrow govmt. of
Guatemala due to
perceived Communistic
Arms Race
 Struggle to gain weapons
superiority
 Most dangerous aspect of
the Cold War
Deterrence
 The policy of making the
military power of the U.S.
and its allies so strong that
no enemy would dare
attack for fear of retaliation
 U.S. conducted 19
hydrogen bomb tests
between 1954 and 1958
Brinkmanship
 The willingness to go to the
edge of war for the
purpose of maintaining
peace.
 Used a great deal by the
Eisenhower Administration
How did the policy of deterrence
influence U.S. actions during the
Cold War?
 It allowed U.S. Secretary of
State John Foster Dulles to
use brinkmanship as a
strategy
 Put the U.S. in diplomatic
positions where
threatening to apply
military force presented
the danger of starting a
war
ICBM
 Intercontinental Ballistic
Missile
 Long range rockets
 Mastered by the Soviets
 The U.S. initially lagged
behind in their
development
Sputnik
 The world’s first artificial
satellite in Earth’s orbit
 The realization that the
rocket used to launch
Sputnik could carry a
hydrogen bomb to
American shores added
to American shock and
fear.
U-2 Incident
 American spy plane shot
down in Soviet territory.
 Eisenhower lied about what
it actually was…but the
Soviets had the
wreckage…and the
pilot…alive…whoops
 Ends Eisenhower’s
effectiveness as a
peacemaker by angering
new Soviet Leader Nikita
Khrushchev
How did Sputnik and the U-2
incident affect American public
opinion and policy?
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