Architecture Architecture • The art and science of designing, erecting and constructing buildings. • It also connotes the style and method of design and construction that reflect the cultural and religious temper of the era. • Styles and construction designs of buildings depends on the prevailing climate. • If the climate is cool, the design of the building should be on how to keep it warm and vise versa. • In warm countries like the Philippines, buildings have wide windows to the left in the light and breeze. • In countries were winter or cold spells are felt, the windows are small and tightly secured to prevent the cold air from entering. • The eskimos in Alaska have home whose style is unique because of the climatic conditions prevailing in the state. • The Igloo, the Eskimo’s home, is made of very thick mud with massive walls. There are barely no window openings except the entrance and exit doors. • Massive materials are used for cold climate countries but light materials are used for warm climate countries. • More verandas are evident on colonial types of architecture for Southern States of USA while less verandas can be found in the northern States. Architectural Constructions The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is often made up of small stones called voussoir and a large central stone called a keystone. A keystone supports both sides of an arch. Keystone Arch An arch must also be supported at its base. http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm The barrel vault is a series of arches. http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm Barrel Vaults Cross Vaults It is the result of the intersection of two barrel vaults. One of the early architectural developments was the use of the “post-and-lintel” method. Post lintel This is prevalent in many Philippine middle-income and high-income homes. The dome comprises a series of intersecting arches. http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm Flying Buttress: external arch that counter-balanced the outward thrust of the high, vaulted ceilings. http://www.m-w.com/mw/art/flyingbu.htm Three Main Qualities of Architectural and Structural Materials • Structure – this determine how the structure reacts to the wind, floods, movement, water and the like. It is the most important quality of design. • Texture – this has to do with the roughness or smoothness of the material. It directs the choice of tools to use. This should blend with the internal structure of the building. • Aspect – this refers to particular colors and outside skin after tooling. This is important to achieve consistency in design. The Evolution and Type of Architecture • Egyptian Architecture - designs are characterized by enormous pyramidal structures. • Mesopotamian Architecture – is characterized by a brisk tower called ziggurat. • Greek Architecture – composed of three styles or orders namely doric, ionic and corinthian styles. • Romanesque Architecture – the structure is characterized by with very heavy walls with small window opening stone arch or inverted roof window. • Gothic Architecture – the structure is characterized with pointed arch, making the building larger and taller, and buttresses to support the building. It usually have two towers. • Renaissance Architecture - designs are characterized by over-hanging cornice, string course, pilaster & ornamental pediment. • Baroque Architecture - designs are characterized by elaborate sculptural ornamentation • Modern Architecture - materials used are structural steel & reinforced steel. • European Architecture - rich with old & medieval architectural design. • American Architecture - home design evolve from log cabins. • Philippine Architecture – structures are made by different materials like nipa, palm leaves, wood and bamboo. Architecture The arch, vault, and dome are variations of the same concept that allowed for greater height and more space inside a building.