PowerPoint Presentation - Architecture - Log-in

• The art and science of designing, erecting and
constructing buildings.
• It also connotes the style and method of
design and construction that reflect the
cultural and religious temper of the era.
• Styles and construction designs of
buildings depends on the prevailing
• If the climate is cool, the design of the
building should be on how to keep it warm
and vise versa.
• In warm countries like the Philippines,
buildings have wide windows to the left in
the light and breeze.
• In countries were winter or cold spells are
felt, the windows are small and tightly
secured to prevent the cold air from
• The eskimos in Alaska have home whose
style is unique because of the climatic
conditions prevailing in the state.
• The Igloo, the Eskimo’s home, is made of
very thick mud with massive walls. There
are barely no window openings except the
entrance and exit doors.
• Massive materials are used for cold
climate countries but light materials
are used for warm climate countries.
• More verandas are evident on
colonial types of architecture for
Southern States of USA while less
verandas can be found in the
northern States.
Architectural Constructions
The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is
often made up of small stones called voussoir and a
large central stone called a keystone. A keystone
supports both sides of an arch.
An arch must also be supported at its base.
The barrel vault is a series of arches.
Barrel Vaults
Cross Vaults
It is the result of the intersection of two barrel
One of the early architectural developments was
the use of the “post-and-lintel” method.
This is prevalent in many Philippine
middle-income and high-income homes.
The dome comprises a series of
intersecting arches.
Flying Buttress: external arch
that counter-balanced the
outward thrust of the high,
vaulted ceilings.
Three Main Qualities of Architectural and
Structural Materials
• Structure – this determine how the structure
reacts to the wind, floods, movement, water
and the like. It is the most important quality of
• Texture – this has to do with the roughness or
smoothness of the material. It directs the choice
of tools to use. This should blend with the
internal structure of the building.
• Aspect – this refers to particular colors and
outside skin after tooling. This is important to
achieve consistency in design.
The Evolution and Type of Architecture
• Egyptian Architecture - designs are
characterized by enormous pyramidal
• Mesopotamian
characterized by a brisk tower called
• Greek Architecture – composed of three
styles or orders namely doric, ionic and
corinthian styles.
• Romanesque Architecture – the structure is
characterized by with very heavy walls with
small window opening stone arch or
inverted roof window.
• Gothic Architecture – the structure is
characterized with pointed arch, making the
building larger and taller, and buttresses to
support the building. It usually have two
• Renaissance Architecture - designs are
characterized by over-hanging cornice,
string course, pilaster & ornamental
• Baroque Architecture - designs are
characterized by elaborate sculptural
• Modern Architecture - materials used are
structural steel & reinforced steel.
• European Architecture - rich with old &
medieval architectural design.
• American Architecture - home design
evolve from log cabins.
• Philippine Architecture – structures are
made by different materials like nipa, palm
leaves, wood and bamboo.
The arch, vault,
and dome are
variations of the
same concept that
allowed for greater
height and more
space inside a