Architecture M. Ryan Academic Decathlon 2005-06 Architecture • The art and science of designing and constructing buildings Architecture Architects: specialists in designing structures Architecture One of the early architectural developments was the use of the “post-and-lintel” method A beam is placed horizontally across upright posts. Architecture Ancient Greek “Orders” (styles): composed of a shaft, capital, and base. (click me) http://www.bozzle.com/perClassicOrders.html Architecture Entablature: the top of an order; includes the architrave, frieze, and cornice. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/architecture/entablature.html Architecture Other key developments include the arch, http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm Architecture the vault, http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm Architecture and the dome (my personal favorite). http://www.arlington.k12.va.us/schools/drew/a&a/theromans.htm Architecture The arch was a purely Roman invention. An arch is often made up of small stones called voussoir and a large central stone called a keystone. Architecture A series of columns is called a colonnade. A series of arches is called an arcade. Architecture The arch, vault, and dome are variations of the same concept that allowed for greater height and more space inside a building. Architecture The Romans were great engineers. They developed concrete as a building material, which was used in building aqueducts, baths, and other public works projects. Architecture Flying Buttress: external arch that counterbalanced the outward thrust of the high, vaulted ceilings. http://www.m-w.com/mw/art/flyingbu.htm Architecture During the Industrial Revolution, many new materials were developed: glass-- Crystal Palace (1851) http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1158.htm Architecture and wrought iron: The Eiffel Tower Modern Architecture Antonio Gaudi: Spanish architect– no flat surface or straight lines (organic) http://www.lexised.com/architecture/gaudi/casam.html Modern Architecture Antonio Gaudi’s most famous building: “La Sagrada Familia” Modern Architecture The 1st skyscraper was made in St. Louis, MO by Louis Sullivan who coined the expression “form follows function”. Modern Architecture Frank Lloyd Wright: American architect; carefully considered the environment where the building was to be constructed. “Falling Water” More Wright Modern Architecture Steel and concrete are the favored materials for commercial type construction. Wood and brick are the favored materials for residential construction.