Ch 26.1 notes

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Chapter 26 Section 1
Origins of the Cold War
•
•
•
1945- A Critical Year
Differences at Yalta
Stalin, Roosevelt and
Churchill were the people
at Yalta
–
Germany
•
•
–
Agreed to spilt Germany into
four different pieces
The American, British and
French zones became one
West Germany and the
Soviet zone became East
Germany
Poland
•
•
•
Stalin knew that Poland was
a good place to invade
Russia
He did not want Poland’s old
government to resume
power
Stalin said they had to be
sympathetic to Soviet
security needs
•
•
The United Nations
The United Nations is a
new international
peacekeeping organization
–
Members would try to settle
their differences peacefully
and would promote justice
and cooperation in solving
international problems
Try to stop wars from
happening and take effective
collective measures to end
those that did break out
11 members represented the
different countries
–
–
•
United States, Soviet Union,
Great Britain, France and
China had permanent seats
on the Security Council and
a veto over proposed
policies
• The Potsdam
Conference
• Britain and America
continued to debate
divisions of the Yalta
conference with Stalin
• Truman knew the atom
bomb was being tested
in New Mexico, trying
to intimate Stalin he
told him about it- Stalin
simple nodded
• Conflicting Postwar
Goals
• The American View
• America wanted to
spread democracy and
economic opportunity to
the conquered nations
of Europe and Asia
• An economically strong
and politically open
world would provide
more markets
• The Soviet View
• After the losses in the
war they wanted to
make sure that did not
happen again
• Satellite Nations
– Countries subject to
Soviet domination, on
western borders that
would be a buffer zone
against attacks
• Spread communism
– Doctrine said that the
overthrow of capitalism
was inevitable and the
role of the government is
to speed it up
•
Soviets Tighten Their
Hold
Albania and Bulgaria
•
–
Albania
•
•
–
Communist guerrilla forces
drove out Germans in
1944
Elections the following
year caused all anticommunist leaders to be
silenced
Bulgaria
•
Soviets took over in 1944
and took control in 1948
•
Czechoslovakia
–
–
–
In 1946 communists
controlled 40% of the
vote
To get support for the
party they staged rallies,
strikes and violent
uprisings
1948 they were a
communist satellite
nation
•
Hungary and Romania
–
Hungary
•
–
Communist controlled the
police and arrested anticommunist leaders
allowing communist to
win elections
Romania
•
•
Communists forced the
King to name a
communist Prime
Minister
Two years later the Prime
Minister forced the King
to step down
•
East Germany
– Seeking revenge
Stalin set up a
brutal totalitarian
government
– Became known as
German
Democratic
Republic
•
Finland and Yugoslavia
–
Finland
•
•
Treaty of Cooperation with
Soviets in 1948
Required Finland to
remain neutral in foreign
affairs and was allowed
to control its own
diplomatic affairs
–
Yugoslavia
•
•
•
Communist gained control
in 1945 through Josip Broz
aka Tito
Tito refused to take orders
from Stalin
Tito made his own form of
communism free from
Stalin
• The Iron Curtain
– Stalin said that
Communism would
triumph of capitalism and
called for
•
Communism to
spread in many ways
– Iron Curtain
» Invisible line that
separates
Communism from the
rest of the world
– Cold War
» Competition that
developed between
the united states and
the Soviet
•
Union for power and
influence in the world
• Containment
• ContainmentKeeping
communism where
communism
already is and not
allowing it to
spread
• The Truman Doctrine
• Communism was
threatening Greece and
Turkey
• Truman Doctrine
– Called for America to take
leadership role in the
world
– Said people can either
live freely or under
dictatorial rule
– We as free people are
responsible to help out
other free people
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