Europeans Influence Africa and Asia

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Europeans
Influence
Africa and
Asia
Turbulent Centuries in
Africa
• “It is said that the first time
they saw sails…they believed
they were great seabirds
with white wings, which
were flying and had come
from some strange
place…Some thought the
ships were fishes, others that
they were ghosts that went
by night, at which they were
terrified”
-- Alvise Cadamosto, 1455
Portugal’s Footholds
• The Portuguese
originally built small
forts on the coast and
left just enough men
and guns to defend their
territory.
• Eventually took over all
coastal areas.
Portuguese Coastal Fortress
The Slave Trade
• Slavery had previously
existed in Africa as
different tribes took over
and enslaved each other.
• Europeans shipped slaves
to work on their
plantations in the
Americas.
• Plantations – large estates
run by an owner or an
owner’s overseer – in the
Americas.
The Portuguese in awe of the majesty of the Manikongo. The
Portuguese were initially impressed by the Kingdom of
Kongo. Depopulation from slave trading would eventually
lead to the disintegration of the once powerful Kongo
Plantations
European Justification
(Whatever helps you sleep at night)
• Europeans justified their
slave trade by stating that
since the Africans were not
Christian, they were not
civilized, and thus were
only fit for slavery.
• The church still sent
missionaries to try and
convert the natives either
in Africa, Asia, or the
Americas.
• Missionary: someone who
strives to teach Christianity
to those who are not
followers
The Triangle Trade
• African rulers would
kidnap those that lived in
the interior and bring
them to the coastal forts.
• Europeans would trade
gold, guns, textiles, etc.
for the captured slaves.
• They would take the
kidnap victims on the
gruesome “Middle
Passage” to the Americas
where they would be sold
to plantation owners as
slaves.
• The America’s produced
products like cotton, sugar,
grains, timber, tobacco, and
other raw materials.
• Ships would take raw
materials to Europe to be
refined into manufactured
goods. (textiles, guns, flour,
furniture, etc.)
• These manufactured goods
would be traded in Africa for
more slaves or sold to
colonists in the Americas.
• The process became known
as the Triangle Trade.
Resistance
• Some African leaders, such as
Affonso I, tried to stop the trade by
banishing Europeans from
transporting slaves through their
lands, but Europeans simply found
ways around them, and the
resistance was a failure.
Affonso I’s coat of arms
Asante Kingdom
• Osei Tutu united many
African cities and formed
the Asante Kingdom.
• Tutu claimed he had a right
to rule from heaven.
• Asante kingdom created a
gold and slave trade
monopoly in their kingdom.
• Monopoly: exclusive control
over a business or industry,
preventing others from
becoming part of that
market.
Asante Gold
Soul
Washers
badge
Asante Power
• The Asante traded their
gold and slaves for
European firearms.
• This allowed them to
build a wealthy and
powerful state.
• Why it such a big deal
for the Asante Kingdom
to own firearms?
Elephant Gun
European Presence
Expands
• Europeans moved in and
took over Portuguese forts
and ports, making them
permanent parts of Africa
• Cape Town: First permanent
European settlement
• Boers: Dutch farmers who
took over African land and
killed those who stood in
their way.
Cape Town from 1764 by Johannes Rach
Colonization’s Effects Today
• Politically: European
territorial boundaries
separate some African
cultures.
– Europeans and Africans were
deliberately separated. (South
African Apartheid)
• Economically: Residents
were discouraged from
building markets and cities,
and diverse businesses were
discouraged. Because of
this, many Africans are in
poverty.
European Footholds in
South and Southeast
Asia
Portugal Builds an Eastern Empire
• Recall: Portugal was a
leader in explorations
to the Spice Island and
Africa
– How and why did the
Portuguese begin
exploration in Africa?
– Predict the impact the
Portuguese might have in
Asia.
Portuguese Travel East
• After da Gama, the
Portuguese, under Afonso
de Albuquerque’s
command, set off to
control the Indian Ocean.
• By that time, Muslim
rulers had established the
Mughal empire
throughout much of India.
• The Portuguese hoped to
end Muslim power and
turn the Indian Ocean into
a “Portuguese Lake”.
Portugal gets their Lake House
• After establishing a base on the
island of Goa, Albuquerque
burned coastal towns and
crushed Arab fleets at sea,
massacring many Muslims.
• For most of the 1500s Portugal
controlled the spice trade
between Europe and Asia.
Portugal’s Weakness
• Despite their sea power,
Portugal lacked resources
and failed to make inroads
into the region.
• Portuguese attacked
Muslims and destroyed
Hindu temples in attempt
to convert Asians to
Christianity
Rise of the Dutch
• The Dutch were the first
Europeans to challenge
Portuguese domination of
Asian trade.
• With a strategic settlement
at Cape Town, the Dutch
had a secure foothold in
the region.
The Dutch Oven:
Practical Cookware,
Funny Sleeping
Habit
A Powerful Dutch Company
• In the early 1600s, a group of wealthy Dutch Merchants
formed the Dutch East India Company (DEIC).
• Unlike Portuguese and Spanish traders, the DEIC had full
sovereign powers.
Dutch East India Company
(DEIC)
With its power to build
armies and wage war,
the DEIC came to
dominate the region
• Sovereign: Having full
independent power.
(not being controlled
by a government)
Asserting Dutch
Dominance
• The Dutch were able to
enforce a monopoly in the
Spice Islands.
• They controlled shipments
to Europe and much of the
trade within Southeast
Asia.
• They used military force to
further their goals.
Mughal Empire
Mughal India & European
Traders
• Mughal India was the
center of the valuable
spice trade.
• The Mughal empire was
larger, richer and more
powerful than any
kingdom in Europe.
The Taj Mahal is the most famous piece of
architecture from the Mughal Empire.
The Decline of the
Mughals
• As the empire weakened
conflicts between Hindu
and Muslim princes
rekindled.
• Rulers then increased
taxes, sparking rebellion.
• The British used troops to
drive out the French in
the region. Mughals
forces to recognize British
right to collect taxes.
• By the late 1700s, the
British had used its great
wealth to dominate most
of India.
India becomes the “Jewel of the British
Empire”
The Perfect Picture
Chuck Norris
• Chuck Norris
destroyed the
periodic table,
because he only
recognized the
element of
surprise.
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