Europeans Influence Africa and Asia Turbulent Centuries in Africa • “It is said that the first time they saw sails…they believed they were great seabirds with white wings, which were flying and had come from some strange place…Some thought the ships were fishes, others that they were ghosts that went by night, at which they were terrified” -- Alvise Cadamosto, 1455 Portugal’s Footholds • The Portuguese originally built small forts on the coast and left just enough men and guns to defend their territory. • Eventually took over all coastal areas. Portuguese Coastal Fortress The Slave Trade • Slavery had previously existed in Africa as different tribes took over and enslaved each other. • Europeans shipped slaves to work on their plantations in the Americas. • Plantations – large estates run by an owner or an owner’s overseer – in the Americas. The Portuguese in awe of the majesty of the Manikongo. The Portuguese were initially impressed by the Kingdom of Kongo. Depopulation from slave trading would eventually lead to the disintegration of the once powerful Kongo Plantations European Justification (Whatever helps you sleep at night) • Europeans justified their slave trade by stating that since the Africans were not Christian, they were not civilized, and thus were only fit for slavery. • The church still sent missionaries to try and convert the natives either in Africa, Asia, or the Americas. • Missionary: someone who strives to teach Christianity to those who are not followers The Triangle Trade • African rulers would kidnap those that lived in the interior and bring them to the coastal forts. • Europeans would trade gold, guns, textiles, etc. for the captured slaves. • They would take the kidnap victims on the gruesome “Middle Passage” to the Americas where they would be sold to plantation owners as slaves. • The America’s produced products like cotton, sugar, grains, timber, tobacco, and other raw materials. • Ships would take raw materials to Europe to be refined into manufactured goods. (textiles, guns, flour, furniture, etc.) • These manufactured goods would be traded in Africa for more slaves or sold to colonists in the Americas. • The process became known as the Triangle Trade. Resistance • Some African leaders, such as Affonso I, tried to stop the trade by banishing Europeans from transporting slaves through their lands, but Europeans simply found ways around them, and the resistance was a failure. Affonso I’s coat of arms Asante Kingdom • Osei Tutu united many African cities and formed the Asante Kingdom. • Tutu claimed he had a right to rule from heaven. • Asante kingdom created a gold and slave trade monopoly in their kingdom. • Monopoly: exclusive control over a business or industry, preventing others from becoming part of that market. Asante Gold Soul Washers badge Asante Power • The Asante traded their gold and slaves for European firearms. • This allowed them to build a wealthy and powerful state. • Why it such a big deal for the Asante Kingdom to own firearms? Elephant Gun European Presence Expands • Europeans moved in and took over Portuguese forts and ports, making them permanent parts of Africa • Cape Town: First permanent European settlement • Boers: Dutch farmers who took over African land and killed those who stood in their way. Cape Town from 1764 by Johannes Rach Colonization’s Effects Today • Politically: European territorial boundaries separate some African cultures. – Europeans and Africans were deliberately separated. (South African Apartheid) • Economically: Residents were discouraged from building markets and cities, and diverse businesses were discouraged. Because of this, many Africans are in poverty. European Footholds in South and Southeast Asia Portugal Builds an Eastern Empire • Recall: Portugal was a leader in explorations to the Spice Island and Africa – How and why did the Portuguese begin exploration in Africa? – Predict the impact the Portuguese might have in Asia. Portuguese Travel East • After da Gama, the Portuguese, under Afonso de Albuquerque’s command, set off to control the Indian Ocean. • By that time, Muslim rulers had established the Mughal empire throughout much of India. • The Portuguese hoped to end Muslim power and turn the Indian Ocean into a “Portuguese Lake”. Portugal gets their Lake House • After establishing a base on the island of Goa, Albuquerque burned coastal towns and crushed Arab fleets at sea, massacring many Muslims. • For most of the 1500s Portugal controlled the spice trade between Europe and Asia. Portugal’s Weakness • Despite their sea power, Portugal lacked resources and failed to make inroads into the region. • Portuguese attacked Muslims and destroyed Hindu temples in attempt to convert Asians to Christianity Rise of the Dutch • The Dutch were the first Europeans to challenge Portuguese domination of Asian trade. • With a strategic settlement at Cape Town, the Dutch had a secure foothold in the region. The Dutch Oven: Practical Cookware, Funny Sleeping Habit A Powerful Dutch Company • In the early 1600s, a group of wealthy Dutch Merchants formed the Dutch East India Company (DEIC). • Unlike Portuguese and Spanish traders, the DEIC had full sovereign powers. Dutch East India Company (DEIC) With its power to build armies and wage war, the DEIC came to dominate the region • Sovereign: Having full independent power. (not being controlled by a government) Asserting Dutch Dominance • The Dutch were able to enforce a monopoly in the Spice Islands. • They controlled shipments to Europe and much of the trade within Southeast Asia. • They used military force to further their goals. Mughal Empire Mughal India & European Traders • Mughal India was the center of the valuable spice trade. • The Mughal empire was larger, richer and more powerful than any kingdom in Europe. The Taj Mahal is the most famous piece of architecture from the Mughal Empire. The Decline of the Mughals • As the empire weakened conflicts between Hindu and Muslim princes rekindled. • Rulers then increased taxes, sparking rebellion. • The British used troops to drive out the French in the region. Mughals forces to recognize British right to collect taxes. • By the late 1700s, the British had used its great wealth to dominate most of India. India becomes the “Jewel of the British Empire” The Perfect Picture Chuck Norris • Chuck Norris destroyed the periodic table, because he only recognized the element of surprise.