Ch 14 Beginning of Global Age

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Ch. 14 The Beginnings of Our Global
Age: Europe, Africa, and Asia 14151796
The Motivations to Explore
• Control trade of an area for items
– Spices, medicines, perfumes
• Curiosity beginning in the Renaissance
– Marco Polo, invention of printing press
• Later, religion or “mask” of religion becomes factor
Prince Henry the Navigator 1415
• Begins school of navigators and cartographers
• Chief goal is to explore and eventually sail around Africa
• Motivation to
– Spread Christianity to Africa
– Convert sources of Muslim traders riches for Portugal
• 1488, Bartholomeu Dias rounds tip of Africa around Cape of Good Hope
Typical Explorer Identity
1. Searching for wealth, fame, and/or fortune
2. Suffers hardships on long journeys to newly
discovered territory
3. Finds “new lands”
4. Negotiates “treaties” with native groups
5. Begins profitable trade for Europeans
6. Start of European Imperialism around the
world
Key Improvements to Sailing
1.
2.
3.
4.
Better compass
Improved mapmaking
Faster ships
Astrolabes- applied to shipping
Columbus Reaches the Americas
• As the Portuguese sailed East toward Asia, the Spanish wanted
to share in the trade and wealth from Asia
• In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed to finance,
or pay for a voyage by Christopher Columbus
• On August 1492, Columbus set sail with three vessels and a crew of 90
sailors
• The Santa Maria, Nina and the Pinta were his three sailing ships.
6
•October 11th, the sailors
discovered land
•This land was not the Indies but
the Bahamas.
•Columbus established the first
Spanish colony in the Americas
Hispaniola
•A colony - a territory under the
immediate political control of a
distant country
•Native Americans on the island
were called “Indos”
•Columbus did not realize he was
in the West Indies, not the East
7
•Columbus met the Tainos
•Columbus promised Queen Isabella that in another
trip he could convert the Indians to Christianity and
enslave them
•He claimed the land and enslaved the Taino
8
The Spanish
Cross the Pacific
•In 1511 the Spanish settled
in the Caribbean Islands
• Columbus had conquered
Puerto Rico, Jamaica and
Cuba
9
•In 1513 Vasco Nunez de
Balboa reached the Pacific
Ocean
•He claimed the Pacific
Ocean for Spain
10
•In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan sailed across the
Pacific Ocean around the tip of South America
•Europeans became aware of the true size of the
world.
11
•In 1522, one ship and 18 sailors circumnavigated, or sail
completely around the world
•Only one ship from Magellan’s fleet returned home to Spain in
1522
•First to circumnavigate the globe.
12
Routes to find the riches of Asia
1.
2.
3.
4.
East around Africa
West through Central America
Northwest Passage through North America
South through Straits of Magellan (South
America)
• 1497 Vasco da Gama follows Dias and rounds
tip of Africa to India
• Portuguese create ports on coast of India
Dividing the globe
• 1493 Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain push Pope to set a Line of
Demarcation
• Line splits non-European world between Portugal/Spain
• Treaty of Tordesillas- signed in 1494 between Spain/Portugal splitting
world between two empires
Portuguese Influence Spreads in Africa
• Set up posts around
continent
• Collect water, food, and
supplies
• Began attacking existing
cities: Mombassa and
Malindi
• Main goal was to get to
India
Portuguese Trading Posts
• Traded muskets, tools, and cloth for gold,
ivory, hides, and slaves
• Left forts to supply and defend their ships, not
to start colonies
• Set up to expel Arabs in East African trade
network (avoiding middleman)
• Portuguese never ventured very far from the
coast
New Era Begins:
African Slave Trade 1500’s-1600’s
• Slaves had been in every major society in world history
• Plantations: large estates run by an owner or an owner’s
overseer
• Servants could also be purchased for wealthy European
families
• African tribes did the dirty work
• Brought captives to trade as slaves to Europeans
• In return, they receive textiles, metal work, rum, tobacco,
weapons, and gunpowder
Affonso I
• Affonso I, ruler of the
Kongo objected to the
slave trade
• 1505 after becoming
King calls in Portuguese
to help Kongo become
Christian
• Wanted to end the
slave trade (pg. 456)
King Affonso I 1456-1545
WHO CONTROLS THE SLAVE TRADE?
New African States Arise
•
•
•
•
Asante Kingdom Late 1600’s
Present day Ghana
United by Osei Tutu
Resisted Denkyera Kingdom
by proclaiming “a right to
rule from heaven”
• Government officials
chosen by birth managing
gold mining and the slave
trade
• Monopoly: exclusive control of a business or industry
• Asante monopolize slave trade with Europeans
• Play Europeans against one another
• Oyo Empire
• Present-day Nigeria
• Late 1600’s, leaders use slave trade wealth to build an army
Decline of PortugueseArrival of Dutch, British, and French
• 1600’s Portuguese power declines with arrival of Dutch,
British, and French in the region
• 1652 Dutch found Cape Town
• Settled by the Boers
• Mid 1600’s, British and French meet present day Senegal
• 1788 British establish African Association to sponsor explorers
to Africa
Portugal Builds an Eastern Empire
• After Vasco da Gama’s voyage, Afonso de Albuquerque led the
Portuguese into the Indian Ocean
• Muslim ruled Mughal Empire controlled the region
• Princes in Southern India turn to side of the Portuguese
More Outposts
• 1510 Goa becomes a major
Portuguese military and
commercial base
• Muslims become target of
Portuguese
• Fall of Malacca in 1511 sees
Muslim massacre
• Extension of outposts from
East Africa to India allows
spice trade to be controlled
by Portuguese
• Portuguese focus on turning
Muslims to Christianity
Rise of the Dutch
• Cape Town (South Africa) was first Dutch colony
• By 1599, Dutch use Cape Town and other
settlements/colonies/outposts to gain influence
Dutch East India Company Routes
Dutch East India Company
• 1602 formed by wealthy merchants and controlled by
government
• Could build armies, wage war, negotiate treaties and govern
overseas territory
• 1641 take Malacca from Portuguese
• Set up trade with China and monopolize Spice Islands
Close Ties with Locals
•
•
•
•
Dutch close to local rulers
Intermarriage takes place
Dutch hold Indonesian power until 1900’s
French and British come to control Souteast Asia in 1700’s
Emergence of Spanish
•1521 Magellan (before he dies) claims Philippines for Spain
•Division of Philippines allows easy conversion by missionaries
to Christianity
•Philippines used as base to extend Spanish trade
•Silver from South America to China
Mughal Empire (India) Begins Decline
• Through 1600’s, Mughal controlled powerful Indian Empire
• Exported spices, large quantities of silk and cotton cloth, and
other luxury goods
• Religious differences (Muslims vs. Hindus) caused decline of
power
• European influence seeps in region
• Corruption destroys empire
• European powers create East Indian companies to control
trade and government in region
• Sepoys- Indian soldiers
• Companies use sepoy armies to dominate region
Indian Armies
British army blowing Sepoy mutineers from guns in 1857
Matteo Ricci 15831610
•In spirit of Marco
Polo, Matteo Ricci
comes to China in
1583
•Adopts Chinese dress
and customs over 30
years
•Translates European
books into Chinese
•Extends Europes
knowledge of China
European Contact
with Ming China
•1514 Portuguese ships
reach China from
Malacca
•Europeans were
considered barbarians
•Silks and porcelains
were preferred products
•Chinese wanted
gold/silver in return
•Macao (present day Guangshou) becomes post for Portuguese and
later Dutch, English, etc. trading
•Trading supervised by imperial officials
•Jesuit arrival led by Ricci expands contact between two societies
The Manchu
Conquest
•Early 1600’s, Ming
Dynasty was in decay
•Manchus push through
the Great Wall to seize
Bejing in 1644
•Qing (ching) Dynasty
emerges
•Qing ruled through
local governments of
Chinese backed by
military might
Brilliant Qing
Rulers
•Kangxi
(kahngshee)16221722:
•Extends Chinese
power into Central
Asia
•Qianlong
(chyahnlung) 17361796:
•Grandson of Kangxi;
expands nation to
largest area in nation’s
history
Kangxi, Qing Emperor
Qianlong, Qing Emperor
Rule of the Qing
•Economy grows with
introduction of new
products (potatoes,
corn)
•Population rises from
140-300million (17401800)
•1793 Lord Macartney
(Great Britain) arrives
with western products
for trade
•Macartney insults
Chinese and they
choose not to
negotiate trade
Korea and Japan
•1592 and 1597 Japan
invades Korea
•Koreans had before
maintained contacts
all the way to the
Mediterranean
•Japanese burn
villages, famine and
disease result seeing
population drop
•1636 Qing invade
•Koreans begin
isolation period
Japanese Welcome
Outsiders
•Tokugawa shoguns
began to centralize
power and impose
order
•Europeans arrive in
1543 (Portuguese)
•Japanese welcome
Christianity and
printing press
•With as many as
300,000 Japanese
Christians and Spain
seizing the Philipines,
shoguns become
hostile
• By 1638, Shoguns had persecuted
Christians, barred Europeans, and
banned foreign travel
• This begins 200 years of foreign
isolation
Chapter 14 Vocabulary
Moluccas
Prince Henry
Cartographer
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus
Line of Demarcation
Treaty of Tordesillas
Circumnavigate
Mombasa
Malindi
Plantation
Affonso I
Missionary
Asante Kingdom
Osei Tutu
Monopoly
Oyo empire
Cape Town
Boers
Alfonso de Albuquerque
Mughal empire
Goa
Malacca
Outpost
Dutch East India
Company
Sovereign
Philipines
Sepoys
Macao
Guangzhou
Matteo Ricci
Manchus
Qing
Qianlong
Lord Macartney
Nagasaki
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