Digestive System Anatomy and Physiology

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Digestive System
Anatomy and Physiology
Mouth

Hard Palate
– Anterior roof

Soft Palate
– Posterior Roof

Uvula
– Projection of soft palate

Lingiuinal Frenulum
– Attaches tongue to mouth floor
Pharynx

Passageway for food and air
Esophagus
Tube carries food to stomach
 Peristalsis

– Muscle contractions that move the food
Stomach

Cardioesophageal Sphincter
– Opening at top of stomach

Gastric Juice
– Stomach acid

Chyme
– Substance left after stomach digestion

Pyloric Sphincter
– Opening at bottom of stomach leads to
intestines
Small Intestine
Nearly all food absorption occurs here
 Three Sections

– Duodenum
– Jejunum
– Ileum
Large Intestine
Absorbs water
 Get rid of waste
 Appendix

– Inflamed appendix=appendicitis
Salivary Glands
Parotid glands- near ears in mouth
 Submandibular and sublingual glands

– Produce saliva under tongue

Saliva
– Moistens food
– Helps start startch digestion
Teeth

Deciduous teeth
– Baby teeth
Incisors- cut food
 Canines- tear and
pierce food
 Molars- grinding

Pancreas
Produces enzymes that break food down
 Empties into small intestine
 Neutralizes gastric acid
 Produces insulin and glucagon

Liver and Gall Bladder
Produces bile
 Bile enters small intestine
 Helps breakdown lipids
 Gall bladder stores bile

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