Phases of Matter and Changes of Phase Do We Get New Materials Or Do We Get The Same Things Just Re-Done? What Are Phases of Matter? • The physical forms in which a substance can exist Solids Gases Liquids Plasma Solids • Phase of matter in which matter has a definite shape and volume Molecules (small round objects) are arranged and organized in “tightly packed” order Liquids • Phase of matter in which matter takes the shape of its container and has definite volume Molecules are moving slowly; not fast enough to overcome the attractions between them Gases • Phase in which matter changes in both volume and shape Molecules move very quickly and are able to break apart from one another Plasma • Phase of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume and whose particles have broken apart Can be found in lightning, fire, and the Aurora Borealis Why Do Different Phases Exist? • Behavior of Molecules …but they are always in motion, constantly bumping into one another So How Do We Classify Them? • How fast the molecules move!!! Solids Liquids Molecules Move move slow faster than and vibrate solids and in place overcome some attraction Gases Plasmas Move fast Move and incredibly overcome fast but all of break apart attraction 5 Major Changes of State • Freezing • Melting • Boiling • Evaporation • Sublimation Freezing • Freezing: The change of state from liquid to solid As liquids cool their particles begin to slow, bringing them closer together forming crystals Melting • Melting: The change of state from solid to liquid As a substance absorbs heat energy the objects particles begin to heat up and move faster and farther away from one another Boiling • Boiling: process that occurs when vaporization takes place inside a liquid as well as on the surface Dependant on how strongly the particles in an object are held together Evaporation • Evaporation: occurs when a liquid acquires enough energy to become a gas only on the surface of the liquid Condensation • Condensation: Occurs when a gas loses enough thermal energy to become a liquid Particles in a gas lose energy and begin to move slower, coming closer together Sublimation • Sublimation: occurs when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy to become a gas What happens when things melt, boil, etc. ? • During a phase change, Thermal Energy is either absorbed or released Solid to Liquid Liquid to Gas Gas to Liquid Liquid to Solid What happens to substances when they are heated or cooled? • When objects are heated...they • When objects are cooled...they ***Water is the only exception...it actually expands as it cools Change of State Graph What changes occur as you slowly heat a beaker of ice from – 10 to 110 degrees Celsius?