Electric Current

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Electricity
Principles of Electricity as it is related
to hair
Electricity
• Form of energy – produces light,
heat, magnetic and chemical
changes.
Current
• Flow of electrons along a path called a
conductor.
Load
• Electrically
powered
appliances
– Ex.
Blowdryer
or curling
iron
Conductors
• Material that best transports electricity to a
load.
– Silver and copper are best (contain ions)
– Water and human body are conductors
Insulators
• Material that does not allow current to pass
through it.
• Protects user from current.
– Silk, wood, plastic, rubber, glass, paper, brick, cloth,
alcohol, oil and pure distilled water.
– Old cords, rubber insulators with fabric coating.
• Became easily frayed, caused shorts
Cord Safety
• Cord – copper wire insulated with rubber
• Keep cords free of kinks to prevent breaks
which might cause electrical shock.
Measures of Electricity
Amp
• Measures the strength
• Power box to the house supplies amps.
• Amp rating show how much strength.
Volt
• Measures pressure
• Measures how hard electrons are pushed
by source.
• 110 to 220V
• 220 has V prongs on plug
• Large motors need 220
Ohm
• Measures Resistance
• Measures how difficult it is to push
electrons through a conductor.
• OHM’s rating = resistance of motion of
electrons.
Watt
• Measures Amount
Used
• 1 watt is small amount
of energy
• Blowdryer = 1000
watts per second
• 1000 watts = 1 kilowatt
Hertz
• Measures Frequency
• Hertz = Hz
• Nameplate gives listing of Hz
Electric Current
• Exists in two forms:
– DC – Direct Current – electrons move at an
even rate; flow is in one direction.
– AC – Alternating Current – electrons flow first
in one direction and then in the other.
Sources of Electricity
• Converter changes DC to AC
• Rectifier changes AC to DC
Converter
Rectifier
Diesel
Generator
Generator
• Produce
alternating current
• Uses mechanical
energy to produce
flow of electrons.
Boiler/Steam
Generator
Wind Generator
Solar
Powered
Generator
Battery
• Has a positive (+) and negative (-) terminal
• Produces direct current only
• Electrons flow toward positive terminal
Producing Electric Current
• Must have a SOURCE and CIRCUIT.
Circuit
Source
Circuit
• Path through which electrons travel.
– Closed – Electrons leave the source and
operate an appliance.
– Open – Broken path of electron flow.
Open
Closed
Parallel Wiring
• Several loads can operate at once or at
different times;
• use parallel wiring in salon.
Parallel Wiring in the Salon
Series Wiring
• All loads must run at the same time
Overload
• More current
flows than the
line is designed
to carry.
• Frequent
problem due to
the number of
stylist and
electrical items
used in salons.
Short Circuit
• Be sure to check cords for
any breaks in the wire.
– Often happens when curling
irons or flat irons are left on
and the cord comes in contact
with the hot iron causing the
cord to melt.
Safety Measures
Fuse
• Connects directly to the circuits in the
power box
• Contains fine metal wire that allows
current to flow through it.
• Overload = melted wire
• Fuse can not be reused
Circuit Breaker
• Connects directly to the
circuits in the power
box.
• Reusable device that
breaks flow of current
when over load occurs.
• 2 pieces of metal make
contact-separate if
circuit is broken.
Grounding Wire
(3 – wire system)
• Protects user with
certain appliances
• Prevents excess flow of
current from going to
user
• 3 – prongs, round one
connects to grounded
wall socket
– It is not safe to plug a 3prong cord into a 2prong socket.
First Aid for Shock
• Step 1 – Knock person
out of the circuit by using
an insulator; broom or
plastic pail.
• Step 2 – Unplug the
appliance use an
insulator to avoid circuit.
• Step 3 – Rush to the
power box and turn off all
circuit breakers.
Local Shock Procedure
• Local Shock - Passes
through small part of
the body.
– Immerse in cold water
immediately
– If severe – take to
hospital
– Keep immersed until
cold and stopped
swelling
– Blot dry and apply
antiseptic cream
General Shock Procedure
• General Shock Passes through the
nervous system.
– First – Break the circuit
before touching the
person; dial 9-1-1.
– Start CPR; continue
with CPR until
emergency team
arrives.
Electrical Fires
Emergency Procedures
• Remember: NO
WATER!
– Turn off the circuit
– Smother the fire with
rug, towel or powder.
Electricity By Use In the Salon
• Thermal/Heat Examples:
– Generates heat
– Curling Irons
• Combination Examples:
– Generates heat and produces flow
of air
– Blow Dryers
• Mechanical Examples:
– Has a motor
– Clippers
Electricity
Talking Points
Electricity in Cosmetology
Before Electricity
Effects of Electric Current
• Heating
– More resistance = more heat
– Heating elements heat up when current flows
through.
• Mechanical or Magnetic
– Push – pull effect causes motor to turn
• Electrochemical
– Electric current travels through a water –
based solution to produce relaxing or
stimulating effects.
Electrotherapy
• Application of special currents (modalities)
that have certain effects on the skin.
Electrode
• Safe contact point
through which current
can pass to client.
• Usually made from
carbon, glass or metal.
• Requires two
electrodes.
– One negative and one
positive.
Polarity
• Indicates the negative or positive pole of an
electric current.
– Positive electrode – anode – usually red and
marked with a “P” or “+” sign.
– Negative electrode – cathode – usually black and
marked with “N” or “-” sign.
Galvanic Current
• Oldest form of electrotherapy
• Appliance (rectifier that is built
into the machine) necessary
to convert AC to DC
• Direct current – low volt and
high amp
• Chemical effects caused by
passing current through acid
or alkaline solutions and/or by
passing current through body
tissues and fluids.
Effects of Galvanic Current
Positive Pole (Anode)
Produces acidic reactions
Closes the pores
Soothes nerves
Negative Pole (Cathode)
Produces alkaline
reactions
Opens the pores
Decreases blood supply
Stimulates and irritates
the nerves
Contracts blood vessels
Increases blood supply
Hardens and firms tissues
Expands blood vessels
Softens tissues
How to Use Galvanic Current
Phoresis (Bleaching)
• Process of forcing an acid
or alkali into the skin by
applying current to the
chemical.
• Chemical penetrates the
skin without breaking the
skin.
– Most typical application
of Galvanic Current
Anaphoresis
Negative Pole
• Process of forcing liquids
into tissues from the
negative toward the
positive pole.
– Desincrustation – used to
soften and emulsify grease
deposits (oil) and
blackheads in the hair
follicles.
– Used to treat acne, milia,
and comedones.
Cataphoresis
Positive Pole
• Forces acidic
substances into
deeper tissues
using galvanic
current from the
positive toward the
negative pole.
Caution!!
Do not use negative galvanic
current on skin with broken
capillaries or pustular acne
conditions, or on a client
with high blood pressure or
metal implants!!
How to Use Phoresis
Faradic
• Alternating current; produces mechanical effect;
stimulates nerve and muscle tissue.
– Improved blood circulation, muscle tone, stimulation
of hair growth, increased glandular activity.
– Today it is primarily used to improve muscle tone.
Sinusoidal
•
•
•
•
Alternating current
Mechanical effect
Penetrates deeper than faradic
Greater Stimulation – causes
muscle contractions
• Should never be used on
unhealthy or broken skin.
Tesla
• High-frequency current “violet ray”
• Alternating current – produces a vibrating
effect making this a stimulating current.
• Different voltages produce heat
• Can offer stimulation or relaxation
– Improved blood circulation
– Increased rate of metabolism
– Increased sebaceous gland activity
– Relieves Congestion
Faradic, Sinusoidal and Telsa are all
alternating currents (AC).
Electrotherapy
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Light Therapy
• Visible light is
electromagnetic radiation
that we can see.
– Also called “radiant energy” –
carries, or radiates, energy
through space on waves.
– Distance between two
successive peaks is called
the wavelength.
• Low frequency – Long
wavelengths (fewer waves).
• High frequency – Short
wavelengths (more waves).
• Electromagnetic Spectrum – the entire
range of electromagnetic radiation.
– Visible light – the part of the electromagnetic
spectrum that we can see.
• Makes up 35% of natural sunlight.
– Ultraviolet rays and Infrared rays – also forms
of electomagnetic radiation.
• Invisible – wavelengths are beyond the visible
spectrum of light.
• Makes up 65% of natural sunlight.
Infrared Rays
• Make up 60% of
natural sunlight.
• Longer wavelengths
• Penetrate deeper
• Produce more heat
Infrared Lamps
• Used mainly during
hair treatments and
to process hair
color.
– Operate at a
distance of at least
30 inches for
exposure time of
about 5 min.
– Never leave client
unattended.
Visible Light
• Rays that are the primary source of light
used in facial and scalp treatments.
• Bulbs used are white, red and blue.
– White light – “combination light” – combination
of all visible rays of the spectrum.
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Indigo
Violet
Blue Light
• Only used on bare
oily skin
• Contains fewer
heat rays
• Least penetrating
• Some germicidal
and chemical
benefits
Red Light
• Used on dry skin
in combination
with oils and
creams.
• Penetrates the
deepest.
• Produces most
heat.
Ultraviolet (UV) Rays
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make up 5% of natural sunlight
Shorter wavelengths
Penetrate less
Produce less heat than visible light.
Produce chemical effects and kills germs.
Prompts the skin to produce Vitamin D
– Fat-soluble vitamin that promotes
mineralization of bones.
Overexposure to UV Rays
• Can cause premature
aging of the skin and skin
cancer!!
– Over 1 million new cases of
skin cancer diagnosed
each year.
– Estimated 1 in 5 Americans
will develop skin cancer.
• 90% are result of
overexposure to UV rays
from sun, sun lamps, and
tanning beds.
Before
After
Application of UV Rays
• Can be beneficial if
done with utmost care.
• Apply with lamp at a
distance of 30 to 36
inches.
• Begin with exposure
times of 2 to 3 minutes.
– Gradually increase to 7
or 8 minutes.
Light Therapy
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