Western Expansion - Wilson School District

Transformation of the West
Warm-Up: Pick up Notes-Packet + Assignment
Packet from front cart and complete 1st page of
Notes-Packet. Copy Assignment in Handbook
• Warm-Up
• PowerPoint  Transcontinental RR
Assignment: Assignment Page 1
Closure: How did the transcontinental railroad change the
Railroads Link East & West
• 1863, Central Pacific + Union Pacific began building
first transcontinental railroad
• Federal govt. lent each company millions
– Also gave companies land along track (to sell = $$$)
“White manpower, the kind employers preferred, was in desperately
short supply…The few white recruits who did straggle in…leaned on
their picks when the boss rode away and shouldered their shovels on
Promontory Point: Utah
•Meeting place
· Labor was scarce
Central Pacific
•Started in California
•90% of their workforce
were Chinese immigrants
•Had to cross Sierra
Nevada Mts.
Union Pacific
•Started in Nebraska
•Hired many Irish
•Laid more track due
to Great Plains (flat
due to the hard,
dangerous work
and low pay.
· Therefore,
immigrant labor
was used.
 The workers endured scorching deserts, blinding
snowstorms, and blasted through mountains.
Chinese railroad workers perform their duties in the snow.
Harper’s Weekly, August 7, 1869, page 512 (Nast Cartoon)
Impact of Railroad
Solar Time
– Based time off sun’s
position in the sky 
time issues for trains
traveling long distance
Standard Time
– 4 time zones across the
• R.R. brought settlers to the frontier (West/Great
Plains which was occupied mainly by Native
– Weaken Native American hold on the West
• Railroads link nation economically
– Trains from west carry raw materials
(lumber/grain/cattle) to eastern cities
– Eastern cities turn raw materials into
manufactured goods in their factories which
are then sold to westerners
Warm-Up: Answer the 3 questions on page 4 in your Notes
• Warm-Up
• PowerPoint  Cattle Industry, Gold Rush & Wild West
• Was the Wild West Wild
• Clips + Pictorial Walkthrough
• PowerPoint  Western Realities
Assignment: Assignment Page 2 due Friday Quiz Next Week
Closure: Why was the Wild West portrayed as ‘Wild’?
Mining Industry
“Gold Fever” help draw people to the west
Mining in the West
Colorado: Pike’s Peak- 1859 gold discovery = 100,000 miners
The mining camp nearby turned into Denver, CO (eventual
capital) = boomtown
1859 miners hit ‘pay dirt’ at Comstock Lode in
Nevada (Sierra Nevada Range)
Lode- deposit of valuable minerals (silver and gold)
buried in rock
Comstock Lode produced over $300 million in silver
and gold
• Rush Ends
– Few prospectors actually became rich  large
mining companies have machines dig deep
– Work was hard/dangerous (cave-ins, lung
– 1890s, mining production decrease = ghost towns
Nevada, Colorado, South Dakota became states
due to population increases
Cattle Industry
• 1st cowhands- vaqueros- came from Mexico
and settled in Southwest
– Helped ranchers manage their herds
– Taught American cowhands to round up,
rope, brand, ride
• Many different people worked as cowhands
– 1/3 were Mexican + African-Americans
– African Americans migrate west due to black
• By 1860s, railroads changed cattle industry
– Bring cattle from Texas to the east coast
• Long Drive- cowhands drive cattle from Texas =>
Kansas to be shipped east
• Very profitable
– Cattle ate on open range for two years (cost
ranchers nothing)
• Chisholm Trail was most used by cowhands
End of Long Drive Reasons
• Price of beef decrease  too much supply
• Barbed wire  cut down on food for cattle +
can’t pass freely
• Winter of 1886-87  froze to death
1860 Population
1890 Population
Denver Colorado
Des Moines Iowa
Kansas City Missouri
Omaha Nebraska
Portland Oregon
What does this graphic show?
What do you think caused this dramatic changed in only 30 years?
Wild West Quiz
Answer True or False: Don’t Copy Statements
1) Murder was common out West?
2) There were famous outlaws such as John Wesley
Hardin and ‘Bandit Queen’ Belle Starr.
3) Gunfights and stagecoach robberies were common
4) The Native Americans usually provoked fights with
5) In some places, people formed vigilante groups to
protect themselves.
6 Banks were rarely robbed in the Wild West.
Movie Clips
• http://www.youtube.com/
• http://www.youtube.com/
Picture A
Picture B
Picture C
Picture D
The Real West
• Many different people contributed
– Mexicanos influenced its culture (cattle
– African Americans
• Ranching
• Served in US army- nicknamed Buffalo
Soldier by Native Americans
– Chinese built railroads
– Legends had Indians attacking
– Government played big part in taming West
• Army removed Natives
• Built railroads + gave free land to settlers
Warm-Up: Answer question on bottom of page 5 in NotesPacket. Copy down Assignment(s) in Handbook. Copy
• Warm-Up
• How to do a DBQ
• Complete document questions
• Graphic Organizer—fill in
Assignment: DBQ graphic organizer + Chapter Quiz
Closure: How do we go about completing a DBQ?
Warm-Up: Go to page 11 in Notes-Packet, underline
outside information, and put in graphic organizer.
Copy Assignments.
• Warm-Up
• Review graphic organizer
• Class Writing  Introduction + Body paragraphs
Assignment: Chapter Quiz (complete review sheet)
Closure: How do we go about completing a DBQ?
Warm-Up: In Notes-Packet, after body paragraphs,
write your own conclusion paragraph. Copy
Pair-Share conclusion
Sample Student Essay Discussion
Review Rubric & last minute questions
Quiz questions
Assignment: Study for Quiz
Closure: How do we go about completing a DBQ?
Warm-Up: QUIZ. Copy Assignments.
• Quiz
• Put finished quiz in period bin, grab Native American packet and
complete Assignment page 3 questions
Assignment: Assignment Page 3 due TOMORROW
Closure: How were Native Americans affected by westward
Warm-Up: Notes-Packet pgs. 15-21  answer all questions
for each document. Fill in graphic organizer on loose-leaf.
• Warm-Up
• Review documents + organizer
• Use Native American packet to find 3 pieces of outside information
(10-12 minutes) for organizer
• Start introduction paragraph
Assignment: Introduction Paragraph
Closure: How did westward expansion impact Native
Warm-Up: Left side of class (culture), right side of
class (land) body paragraph write-up with outside
information included. 15 minutes.
• Warm-Up
• Collective write-up
• Conclusion paragraph
Assignment: NONE
Closure: How were Native Americans negatively affected by
western expansion of the US?
1st Treaty of Fort Laramie 1851
ARTICLE 2…the right of the United States Government to establish
roads, military and other posts, within their respective (native)
ARTICLE 5. The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby recognize and
acknowledge the following tracts of country… as their respective
territories… (See Map)
Sand Creek Massacre While Native Americans
were waving white flags to
symbolize peace, U.S.
troops attacked. As many
as 200 Indians, more than
half women and children,
had been killed and
mutilated which pleased
many people in the
Colorado Territory.
As word of the massacre
spread, Indians of the
southern and northern
plains stiffened in their
resolve to resist white
2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie: 1868
This treaty gave the Black Hills of South Dakota to the
However, when gold was found, whites flooded into
the Native Americans’ land.
Two Sioux chiefs – Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull joined
forces to stop the white invaders.
The Battle of Little Bighorn was the last major Native
American victory. Crazy Horse surrendered in 1877
and Sitting Bull fled to Canada but was captured and
put on a reservation in 1881.
Won the battle, lost the war
Background on Big Joe!
Chief Joseph was the chief of the
Nez Perce Indians. When his
people were faced with forced
removal by the US Government
to reservations in Idaho, he
peacefully resisted and
He traveled over 1000 miles in 4
months before the US Army
caught him!
Letter from Parent
My Dear Sir,
I am asking you a favor to put before Mr. Dickerson and the principal. I would
like to have my little Robert…home for the remainder of this term. 1st, on
account of the ill-health of Mrs. George; so he can care for the baby when I
am not home. 2nd, he is too small, and this only serves as a stumble-block
to the school. 3rd, he is not sound in health and would get proper attention
at home. If we be grateful our request we would forward his fare from
Marysville to Bellingham with those coming home for Christmas. Thanks.
Response Letter
Tulalipi Indian Agency
I am in receipt of your letter of the 14th, instant addressed, to Mr. Garcia
concerning your son Robert. Because of some unavoidable delays to our
school work during the first part of the school year we are now finding it
necessary to shorten our Christmas vacation; consequently, it has been
deemed advisable that none of the children be permitted to go home this
year at Christmas time. I am sorry that your son won’t be home for
Christmas. The doctor informs me that Robert is in good health; and he is
getting along nicely in school. Although he is rather small, he gets along
very well and I believe that it is the best for the boy that he remains here at
Very Truly Yours,
First thing: Cut braids, strip and give new clothes…alter
No communication home
No more Native American languages…ALL ENGLISH
Indian Boarding Schools
• Goal: assimilation = get them to adopt
another culture. (“Americanize”)
• Most famous nearby in Carlisle
– Famous Alum = Jim Thorpe, Olympian
• Motto: “Kill the Indian and Save the Man”
• Militaristic . ½ Academic and ½ Manual
• Many Indian children died of disease
– Overcrowding, new climate, poor diet =
tuberculosis, smallpox, measles, homesickness
Dawes Act (1887)
…any reservation or any part thereof of such
Indians is advantageous for agricultural and
grazing purposes, to cause said reservation…to
be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to
allot the lands in said reservation in severalty
(exclusive individual ownership) to any Indian
located thereon in quantities as follows:
To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section;
To each single person over eighteen years of
age, one-eighth of a section;
To each orphan child under eighteen years of
age, one-eighth of a section; and
To each other single person under eighteen
years now living…one-sixteenth of a section:
By the late 1880s, many Indian tribes, desperate and
facing a dire existence of poverty, hunger and disease,
sought a means of salvation to revitalize their traditional
culture. The evolution of a new religion, the Ghost Dance,
was a reaction to the Indians being forced to submit to
government authority and reservation life. In early 1889, a
Paiute shaman, Wovoka, had a vision during an eclipse of
the sun in which he saw the second coming of Christ and
received a warning about the evils of the white man.
The Ghost Dance religion promised an apocalypse in the
coming years during which time the earth would be
destroyed, only to be recreated with the Indians as the
inheritors of the new earth. The buffalo and antelope would
return, and deceased ancestors would rise to once again
roam the earth, now free of violence, starvation, and
disease. Believers were encouraged to engage in frequent
ceremonial cleansing, meditation, prayer, chanting, and
most importantly, dancing the Ghost Dance. Hearing rumors
of the prophecy and fearing that it was an indication of
renewed violence, whites began to panic.
Another interesting spiritual belief…
The Sioux Indians believed that in order
to have fewer enemies in the afterlife, he
had to scalp his opponent on the
Civilian grave diggers bury the Lakota/Sioux dead in a mass grave.
American Horse, Oglala Sioux, and others described the carnage:
"...A mother was shot down with her infant; the child not knowing that its mother was dead was
still nursing...The women as they were fleeing with their babies were killed together, shot
right through…a cry was made that all those who were not killed or wounded should come
forth and they would be safe. Little boys...came out of their places of refuge, and as soon
as they came in sight a number of soldiers surrounded them and butchered them there."
Black Elk:
"…And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the
blizzard. A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream . . . . the nation's hope is
broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead.”
Warm-Up: Complete pg. 22 in Notes-Packet.
Copy Assignments.
• Warm-Up
• Quiz Review
• PPT  Land Giveaway + Western Farmer
Assignment: Assignment Page 4 DUE MONDAY + Chapter Test
Wednesday 9/18
Closure: How did the federal government encouraged
western settlement & how was frontier life like for
Great Land Giveaway
Homestead Act 1962
Government offered 160 acres of land to
anyone who agreed to live on and improve
the land for 5 years…NO COST
• Exodusters  African American migrants
• European immigrants
Farm Life
Farming Difficulties:
Winter- deep snow
Spring- melting snow = flooding
Summer- hot temp/wind
Short supply of wood and water
Set-up House:
Plains were nearly treeless
Built homes with sod (top layer of prairie soil/roots)
Importance of Women:
Educate kids
Offer medical care- snake bites/broken bones
Made clothing/food for family
Farming technology made farming more
efficient = increase production
Steel Plow- cut through tough sod
Windmills- pump water from deep wells
Barbed Wire- fence in land/livestock
Warm-Up: Answer the two ** questions on pg. 28 in NotesPacket. Copy Assignments.
• Warm-Up
• 19th century economics section
Assignment: Chapter Test Wednesday 9/18
Closure: What economic problems did farmers face? How did
the Populist Party sought to address the economic problems
faced by farmers?
Farmers Organize
Farmer Issues
• Prices for crops decrease = decrease profit
• Expenses increase (equipment + shipping
The Grange
• Initially social service  formed cooperatives
(farming organization run by farmers) to keep
more profit—sold crops directly to merchants
Populist Party Platform
“The People’s Party
1) Government ownership of the RR, telegraph, &
telephone industries
2) An 8 hour workday
3) Free coinage of silver
4) Candidate  William Jennings Bryant
Populist Thought Process
More silver = more $$$ in circulation
More $$$ = inflation
Inflation = rising prices
Rising prices for crops = farmers can
pay back $ they borrowed to improve
• Those against free silver wanted to stick
to the gold standard.
• This system required the government to
back every dollar with a certain amount of
• Gold is limited, therefore less
money will circulate, and there
will be no inflation.
Cross of Gold Speech
“Burn down your cities and leave
our farms, and your cities will
spring up again as if by magic; but
destroy our farms and the grass
will grow in the streets of every city
in the country… We answer…their
demand for a gold standard by
saying…You shall not press down
upon the brow of labor this crown
of thorns. You shall not crucify
mankind upon a cross of gold.”
(1896 Democratic Convention)
William Jennings Bryant: Won majority of the S and W farmers
William McKinley: Backing of big business/bankers = victory
Favored Gold Standard, warned free silver = ↑ Prices
McKinley won 1896 Presidential election
Warm-Up: Grab review packet from front cart.
Find specified question(s). Use textbook +
Notes-Packet to answer.
• Warm-Up
• Review Packet—independent work
• Review Packet—Share out
Closure: Any questions on the review sheet?
• Warm-Up  Test
Assignment: NONE
Closure: How was America transformed by Western
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