Transformation of the West Warm-Up: Pick up Notes-Packet + Assignment Packet from front cart and complete 1st page of Notes-Packet. Copy Assignment in Handbook Schedule • Warm-Up • PowerPoint Transcontinental RR Assignment: Assignment Page 1 Closure: How did the transcontinental railroad change the US? Railroads Link East & West • 1863, Central Pacific + Union Pacific began building first transcontinental railroad • Federal govt. lent each company millions – Also gave companies land along track (to sell = $$$) J j “White manpower, the kind employers preferred, was in desperately short supply…The few white recruits who did straggle in…leaned on their picks when the boss rode away and shouldered their shovels on payday.” Immigrant Promontory Point: Utah •Meeting place Workers · Labor was scarce Central Pacific •Started in California •90% of their workforce were Chinese immigrants •Had to cross Sierra Nevada Mts. Union Pacific •Started in Nebraska •Hired many Irish immigrants •Laid more track due to Great Plains (flat land) due to the hard, dangerous work and low pay. · Therefore, immigrant labor was used. Massive discrimination The workers endured scorching deserts, blinding snowstorms, and blasted through mountains. Chinese railroad workers perform their duties in the snow. “PACIFIC CHIVALRY” Harper’s Weekly, August 7, 1869, page 512 (Nast Cartoon) Impact of Railroad Solar Time – Based time off sun’s position in the sky time issues for trains traveling long distance Standard Time – 4 time zones across the US • R.R. brought settlers to the frontier (West/Great Plains which was occupied mainly by Native Americans) – Weaken Native American hold on the West • Railroads link nation economically – Trains from west carry raw materials (lumber/grain/cattle) to eastern cities – Eastern cities turn raw materials into manufactured goods in their factories which are then sold to westerners Warm-Up: Answer the 3 questions on page 4 in your Notes Packet. Schedule • Warm-Up • PowerPoint Cattle Industry, Gold Rush & Wild West • Was the Wild West Wild • Clips + Pictorial Walkthrough • PowerPoint Western Realities Assignment: Assignment Page 2 due Friday Quiz Next Week Closure: Why was the Wild West portrayed as ‘Wild’? Mining Industry “Gold Fever” help draw people to the west Mining in the West Colorado: Pike’s Peak- 1859 gold discovery = 100,000 miners The mining camp nearby turned into Denver, CO (eventual capital) = boomtown 1859 miners hit ‘pay dirt’ at Comstock Lode in Nevada (Sierra Nevada Range) Lode- deposit of valuable minerals (silver and gold) buried in rock Comstock Lode produced over $300 million in silver and gold • Rush Ends – Few prospectors actually became rich large mining companies have machines dig deep underground – Work was hard/dangerous (cave-ins, lung problems) – 1890s, mining production decrease = ghost towns **Positive** Nevada, Colorado, South Dakota became states due to population increases Cattle Industry • 1st cowhands- vaqueros- came from Mexico and settled in Southwest – Helped ranchers manage their herds – Taught American cowhands to round up, rope, brand, ride • Many different people worked as cowhands – 1/3 were Mexican + African-Americans – African Americans migrate west due to black codes • By 1860s, railroads changed cattle industry – Bring cattle from Texas to the east coast • Long Drive- cowhands drive cattle from Texas => Kansas to be shipped east • Very profitable – Cattle ate on open range for two years (cost ranchers nothing) • Chisholm Trail was most used by cowhands End of Long Drive Reasons • Price of beef decrease too much supply • Barbed wire cut down on food for cattle + can’t pass freely • Winter of 1886-87 froze to death City 1860 Population 1890 Population Denver Colorado 4,749 106,713 Des Moines Iowa 3,965 50,093 Kansas City Missouri 4,418 132,716 Omaha Nebraska 1,883 140,452 Portland Oregon 2,874 46,385 What does this graphic show? What do you think caused this dramatic changed in only 30 years? Wild West Quiz Answer True or False: Don’t Copy Statements 1) Murder was common out West? 2) There were famous outlaws such as John Wesley Hardin and ‘Bandit Queen’ Belle Starr. 3) Gunfights and stagecoach robberies were common place. 4) The Native Americans usually provoked fights with settlers/soldiers? 5) In some places, people formed vigilante groups to protect themselves. 6 Banks were rarely robbed in the Wild West. Movie Clips TOMBSTONE • http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=E1vsmpGfB9Q A FISTFUL OF DOLLARS • http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=LgxTwmjWYSs Picture A Picture B Picture C Picture D The Real West • Many different people contributed – Mexicanos influenced its culture (cattle industry) – African Americans • Ranching • Served in US army- nicknamed Buffalo Soldier by Native Americans – Chinese built railroads – Legends had Indians attacking soldiers/settlers – Government played big part in taming West • Army removed Natives • Built railroads + gave free land to settlers Warm-Up: Answer question on bottom of page 5 in NotesPacket. Copy down Assignment(s) in Handbook. Copy Assignments. Schedule • Warm-Up • How to do a DBQ • Complete document questions • Graphic Organizer—fill in Assignment: DBQ graphic organizer + Chapter Quiz Closure: How do we go about completing a DBQ? Warm-Up: Go to page 11 in Notes-Packet, underline outside information, and put in graphic organizer. Copy Assignments. Schedule • Warm-Up • Review graphic organizer • Class Writing Introduction + Body paragraphs Assignment: Chapter Quiz (complete review sheet) Closure: How do we go about completing a DBQ? Warm-Up: In Notes-Packet, after body paragraphs, write your own conclusion paragraph. Copy Assignment. Schedule • • • • • Warm-Up Pair-Share conclusion Sample Student Essay Discussion Review Rubric & last minute questions Quiz questions Assignment: Study for Quiz Closure: How do we go about completing a DBQ? Warm-Up: QUIZ. Copy Assignments. Schedule • Quiz • Put finished quiz in period bin, grab Native American packet and complete Assignment page 3 questions Assignment: Assignment Page 3 due TOMORROW Closure: How were Native Americans affected by westward expansion? Warm-Up: Notes-Packet pgs. 15-21 answer all questions for each document. Fill in graphic organizer on loose-leaf. Schedule • Warm-Up • Review documents + organizer • Use Native American packet to find 3 pieces of outside information (10-12 minutes) for organizer • Start introduction paragraph Assignment: Introduction Paragraph Closure: How did westward expansion impact Native Americans? Warm-Up: Left side of class (culture), right side of class (land) body paragraph write-up with outside information included. 15 minutes. Schedule • Warm-Up • Collective write-up • Conclusion paragraph Assignment: NONE Closure: How were Native Americans negatively affected by western expansion of the US? 1st Treaty of Fort Laramie 1851 ARTICLE 2…the right of the United States Government to establish roads, military and other posts, within their respective (native) territories. ARTICLE 5. The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby recognize and acknowledge the following tracts of country… as their respective territories… (See Map) Sand Creek Massacre While Native Americans were waving white flags to symbolize peace, U.S. troops attacked. As many as 200 Indians, more than half women and children, had been killed and mutilated which pleased many people in the Colorado Territory. As word of the massacre spread, Indians of the southern and northern plains stiffened in their resolve to resist white encroachment. 2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie: 1868 This treaty gave the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Indians. However, when gold was found, whites flooded into the Native Americans’ land. Two Sioux chiefs – Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull joined forces to stop the white invaders. The Battle of Little Bighorn was the last major Native American victory. Crazy Horse surrendered in 1877 and Sitting Bull fled to Canada but was captured and put on a reservation in 1881. Won the battle, lost the war Background on Big Joe! Chief Joseph was the chief of the Nez Perce Indians. When his people were faced with forced removal by the US Government to reservations in Idaho, he peacefully resisted and retreated. He traveled over 1000 miles in 4 months before the US Army caught him! Letter from Parent My Dear Sir, I am asking you a favor to put before Mr. Dickerson and the principal. I would like to have my little Robert…home for the remainder of this term. 1st, on account of the ill-health of Mrs. George; so he can care for the baby when I am not home. 2nd, he is too small, and this only serves as a stumble-block to the school. 3rd, he is not sound in health and would get proper attention at home. If we be grateful our request we would forward his fare from Marysville to Bellingham with those coming home for Christmas. Thanks. Response Letter Tulalipi Indian Agency I am in receipt of your letter of the 14th, instant addressed, to Mr. Garcia concerning your son Robert. Because of some unavoidable delays to our school work during the first part of the school year we are now finding it necessary to shorten our Christmas vacation; consequently, it has been deemed advisable that none of the children be permitted to go home this year at Christmas time. I am sorry that your son won’t be home for Christmas. The doctor informs me that Robert is in good health; and he is getting along nicely in school. Although he is rather small, he gets along very well and I believe that it is the best for the boy that he remains here at school. Very Truly Yours, Superintendent First thing: Cut braids, strip and give new clothes…alter identity. No communication home No more Native American languages…ALL ENGLISH Indian Boarding Schools • Goal: assimilation = get them to adopt another culture. (“Americanize”) • Most famous nearby in Carlisle – Famous Alum = Jim Thorpe, Olympian • Motto: “Kill the Indian and Save the Man” • Militaristic . ½ Academic and ½ Manual Labor • Many Indian children died of disease – Overcrowding, new climate, poor diet = tuberculosis, smallpox, measles, homesickness Dawes Act (1887) …any reservation or any part thereof of such Indians is advantageous for agricultural and grazing purposes, to cause said reservation…to be surveyed, or resurveyed if necessary, and to allot the lands in said reservation in severalty (exclusive individual ownership) to any Indian located thereon in quantities as follows: To each head of a family, one-quarter of a section; To each single person over eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; To each orphan child under eighteen years of age, one-eighth of a section; and To each other single person under eighteen years now living…one-sixteenth of a section: By the late 1880s, many Indian tribes, desperate and facing a dire existence of poverty, hunger and disease, sought a means of salvation to revitalize their traditional culture. The evolution of a new religion, the Ghost Dance, was a reaction to the Indians being forced to submit to government authority and reservation life. In early 1889, a Paiute shaman, Wovoka, had a vision during an eclipse of the sun in which he saw the second coming of Christ and received a warning about the evils of the white man. The Ghost Dance religion promised an apocalypse in the coming years during which time the earth would be destroyed, only to be recreated with the Indians as the inheritors of the new earth. The buffalo and antelope would return, and deceased ancestors would rise to once again roam the earth, now free of violence, starvation, and disease. Believers were encouraged to engage in frequent ceremonial cleansing, meditation, prayer, chanting, and most importantly, dancing the Ghost Dance. Hearing rumors of the prophecy and fearing that it was an indication of renewed violence, whites began to panic. Another interesting spiritual belief… The Sioux Indians believed that in order to have fewer enemies in the afterlife, he had to scalp his opponent on the battlefield. Civilian grave diggers bury the Lakota/Sioux dead in a mass grave. American Horse, Oglala Sioux, and others described the carnage: "...A mother was shot down with her infant; the child not knowing that its mother was dead was still nursing...The women as they were fleeing with their babies were killed together, shot right through…a cry was made that all those who were not killed or wounded should come forth and they would be safe. Little boys...came out of their places of refuge, and as soon as they came in sight a number of soldiers surrounded them and butchered them there." Black Elk: "…And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream . . . . the nation's hope is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead.” Warm-Up: Complete pg. 22 in Notes-Packet. Copy Assignments. Schedule • Warm-Up • Quiz Review • PPT Land Giveaway + Western Farmer Assignment: Assignment Page 4 DUE MONDAY + Chapter Test Wednesday 9/18 Closure: How did the federal government encouraged western settlement & how was frontier life like for farmers? Great Land Giveaway Homestead Act 1962 Government offered 160 acres of land to anyone who agreed to live on and improve the land for 5 years…NO COST INCREASED WESTERN MIGRATION • Exodusters African American migrants • European immigrants Farm Life Farming Difficulties: Winter- deep snow Spring- melting snow = flooding Summer- hot temp/wind Short supply of wood and water Set-up House: Plains were nearly treeless Built homes with sod (top layer of prairie soil/roots) Importance of Women: Farm Educate kids Offer medical care- snake bites/broken bones Made clothing/food for family Farming technology made farming more efficient = increase production Steel Plow- cut through tough sod Windmills- pump water from deep wells Barbed Wire- fence in land/livestock Warm-Up: Answer the two ** questions on pg. 28 in NotesPacket. Copy Assignments. Schedule • Warm-Up • 19th century economics section Assignment: Chapter Test Wednesday 9/18 Closure: What economic problems did farmers face? How did the Populist Party sought to address the economic problems faced by farmers? POPULIST PARTY • “MOVEMENT OF THE PEOPLE” • FOUNDED IN 1892 • DEMANDED REFORMS TO LIFT THE BURDEN OF DEBT FROM FARMERS AND OTHER WORKERS POPULIST HERO, WILLIAM J. BRYAN Farmers Organize Farmer Issues • Prices for crops decrease = decrease profit • Expenses increase (equipment + shipping costs) The Grange • Initially social service formed cooperatives (farming organization run by farmers) to keep more profit—sold crops directly to merchants Populist Party Platform “The People’s Party ” 1) Government ownership of the RR, telegraph, & telephone industries 2) An 8 hour workday 3) Free coinage of silver 4) Candidate William Jennings Bryant Populist Thought Process • • • • More silver = more $$$ in circulation More $$$ = inflation Inflation = rising prices Rising prices for crops = farmers can pay back $ they borrowed to improve farms. Opponents • Those against free silver wanted to stick to the gold standard. • This system required the government to back every dollar with a certain amount of gold. • Gold is limited, therefore less money will circulate, and there will be no inflation. Cross of Gold Speech “Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic; but destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country… We answer…their demand for a gold standard by saying…You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” (1896 Democratic Convention) William Jennings Bryant: Won majority of the S and W farmers William McKinley: Backing of big business/bankers = victory Favored Gold Standard, warned free silver = ↑ Prices McKinley won 1896 Presidential election Warm-Up: Grab review packet from front cart. Find specified question(s). Use textbook + Notes-Packet to answer. Schedule: • Warm-Up • Review Packet—independent work • Review Packet—Share out Assignment: TEST TOMORROW Closure: Any questions on the review sheet? Warm-Up: TEST TAKING PROCEDURES Schedule: • Warm-Up Test Assignment: NONE Closure: How was America transformed by Western Expansion?