SOURCES OF FINANCING FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH: Is there enough money in Kosovo? The Role of Remittances Sokol HAVOLLI Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo Senior Economist This presentation reflects the views of the author and does not necessarily express the views of the Central Bank of the Republic of Kosovo. June, 8, 2010, Prishtina Table of Contents: 1) Introduction and stylized facts 2) Migrants’ Remittances 3) Migrants’ Investments 4) Conclusions Introduction and stylized facts Migration started in early 1960s. Figure 1: Emigration Waves from Kosovo (% of total emigrants) 80% 70% The surge of migration in 1990s, due to the repression and war. 60% 50% 40% 30% Almost 70% of migrants during 1990-1999. 20% 10% 0% 60-79 The number of migrants: around 2025% of population (over 500 thousand). 80-89 90-99 00-06 Introduction and stylized facts More than 75% of Kosovo emigrants are settled in: Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Austria. The remainder: in Scandinavian countries, UK, USA, France, etc. The host country is an important determinant of migrants’ earning potential. Introduction and stylized facts Migrants have substantial earning potential. Estimates show that the yearly earnings of migrants are over 4bn Euro. Savings and remittances compose around 28% and 12% of total earnings, respectively. This shows that there is a substantial potential for investments in home countries by the migrants. Migrants’ Remittances Remittances represent one of the main components of BoP. Figure 2: Remittances and FDI inflows in Kosovo 600 521 467 500 Remittances are 14% of GDP. 400 535 418 505 414 357 350 291 300 246 200 During 2009 remittances reached euro 505 million (a y-o-y decrease of 5.5%). 100 80 19 0 2004 2005 2006 Remittances Remittances decreased as a result of rising unemployment rates developed countries. 2007 FDI 2008 2009 Migrants’ Remittances Remittances mostly used to finance consumption. Figure 3: Remittances 600 Trivial part of remittances used to finance investments. 535 2007 2008 467 500 400 521 505 418 357 300 200 100 Small portion of remittances is also used to finance: Home repairs, Education, Health expenses. 0 2004 2005 2006 Remittances 2009 Migrants’ Remittances The main determinants of remittances are: Migrants’ income, Years since migration, Perceived business environment, Migrants’ investments in home country. This shows that improvements in the business environment could influence migrants’ remittances. Migrants’ Investment An empirical investigation shows that migrants investments are also highly dependent on: Migrants’ perception about the business environment, Age of migrants Migrant earnings To date, there have been identified several important investments by migrants (i.e. participation of migrants in privatization around 15% of total). However, not at a level that migrants would become an important driver for economic growth in Kosovo. Conclusions Migrants potential for investment and remittances should addressed. Migrants investments would also be a very good signal for Foreign Direct Investors. Many countries adopted policies that would attract migrant investments and remittances The policies specially designed for migrants include: Buying land at preferential places or areas for both, investment and housing Business set-up advisory services Easing the procedure of doing business Tax breaks for longer periods (i.e. up to 10 years) etc.