Migration into global perspective Rosa Rodriguez

Rosa Mª Rodríguez Izquierdo
Pablo de Olavide University (SPAIN)(Sevilla)
What is migration?
What are the major forms of
Why people migrate?
1. Basic notions.
• Internal & International migration.
2. Some facts and data.
3. Videos: Positive images of
migrants. Testimonies.
Why people migrate?
http://youtu.be/x3BQzAaU3LY (2:52)
Emigration is an indicator of economic
and/or social failures of a society.
Basic notions
■Types of migration:
Internal migration
International migration
Internal Migration
Central City
• No state
boundaries are
• Based on change
of income or
• Often time, from
rural to urban
International migration
■ It is the crossing of the boundary of a political or
administrative unit for a certain minimum period of
■ It includes the movement of refugees, displaced
persons, uprooted people as well as economic
International Basic Facts
■ Today 232 million people live outside their
place of birth - it is about 3,2% of the world's
■ 1 of every 35 persons in the world is a
■ Current annual growth rate of international
migrants is about 3%.
International migration remains highly
■ In 2013, half of all international migrants lived in 10
countries: the US hosting the largest number (45.8
million), followed by the Russian Federation (11
million); Germany (9.8 million); Saudi Arabia (9.1
million); United Arab Emirates (7.8 million); United
Kingdom (7.8 million); France (7.4 million); Canada
(7.3 million); Australia (6.5 million); and Spain (6.5
Adolescents, Youth and International
■ Globally, there are approximately 35 million
between the ages of 10 and 24 years.
■ 20-24 year olds represent the largest group among
adolescent and youth migrants.
■ Males outnumber females.
Forms of Migration
■ Voluntary migration
• The migrant makes the decision to move
(workers, intellectuals, etc.).
• Most migration is voluntary.
■ Involuntary
• Forced migration in which the mover has no role
in the decision-making process.
• Includes refugees, asylum seekers or refugees
and people forced to move due to external factors
(Military conscription, Children of migrants,
Situations of divorce or separation, etc).
Types of migration
■ Regular migrants
■ Irregular migrants
■ Refugees
■ Labour migration
■ Brain Drain
Irregular Migration
■The people who enter or remain in a
country of which they are not a citizen in
breach of national laws.
■Irregular immigrants account for onethird to one-half of new entrants into
developed countries, marking an
increase of 20 per cent annual growth.
Some Negative Consequences
■ Can also endanger the lives of the migrants
concerned. A large but unknown number of people
die each year trying to cross land and sea borders
without being detected by the authorities. Human
traffickers ruthlessly exploit migrants.
■ They can be at risk of exploitation by employers
and landlords.
■ They are often unwilling to seek redress from
authorities because they fear arrest and
deportation. As a result, they do not always make
use of public services to which they are entitled, for
example emergency health care.
■ A person who due to to a well-founded fear of being
persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality,
membership of a particular social group, or political
opinion, is outside the country of their nationality,
and is unable to or, due to such fear, is unwilling to
avail him/herself of the protection of that country.
(United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees,
Facts on Refugees
■ The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
gives the world total as 12 million refugees.
■ Moreover, there are over 34 millions displaced by
war, including internally displaced persons.
■ The largest source countries of refugees are
Palestine, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, and Sudan.
Labour Migration/Migrant Worker
■A person who is engaged or has been
engaged in remunerated activity in a
State of which he or she is not a national.
(United Nations (UN) International Convention on the Protection of
the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families,
Types of Labour Migration
■ Temporary labour migrants (also known as guest
workers or overseas contract workers): People who
migrate for a limited period of time in order to take up
employment and send money home.
■ Highly skilled and business migrants: People with
qualifications as managers, executives, professionals,
technicians or similar, who move within the internal labour
markets of trans-national corporations and international
organizations, or who seek employment through
international labour markets for scarce skills. Many
countries welcome such migrants and have special 'skilled
and business migration' programs to encourage them to
Labour Migration will continue:
■ Differences in employment opportunities and living
standards between countries.
■ Increased education and broader access to
information on living conditions and employment
opportunities abroad.
■ Established inter-country networks based on family,
culture, and history.
Impacts of Labour Migration
■ For countries of origin, in addition to the possibility of
providing some relief from unemployment and absorbing an
increase in the labour force, it can provide a form of
developmental support, especially through remittances,
transfer of know-how, and creation of business and trade
■ For receiving countries facing labour shortages,
immigration can alleviate labour scarcity, facilitate
occupational mobility, and add to the human capital stock of
the receiving countries.
Brain Drain
■ Definition
• Relates to educationally specific selective migrations.
• Some countries are losing the most educated segment of their
• Can be both a benefit for the receiving country and a problem to
the country of origin.
■ Receiving country
• Getting highly qualified labor contributing to the economy right
• Promotes economic growth in strategic sectors: science and
• Not having to pay education and health costs.
• 30% of Mexicans with a PhD are in the US.
■ International migrations (7:37)
■ Positive images: Migrant journeys (3: 17)
■ Postive images (1:11)
Thank you for your attention
Questions for reflection
■ What general feelings arise when you think about
■ What general feelings arise when you think about
■ What specific features of your country would you miss
the most? Please be specific.
■ What is intriguing to you about migrations?
■ What questions do you have about the personal
experiences of migrant people?
■ What questions do you have about the experience of
individuals moving into your country from other