MIGRATORY MOVEMENTS INTO GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Rosa Mª Rodríguez Izquierdo Pablo de Olavide University (SPAIN)(Sevilla) QUESTIONS What is migration? What are the major forms of migration? Why people migrate? Outline 1. Basic notions. • Internal & International migration. 2. Some facts and data. 3. Videos: Positive images of migrants. Testimonies. Why people migrate? http://youtu.be/x3BQzAaU3LY (2:52) Emigration is an indicator of economic and/or social failures of a society. Basic notions ■Types of migration: Internal migration International migration Internal Migration Central City Suburb • No state boundaries are crossed. • Based on change of income or lifestyle. • Often time, from rural to urban areas. International migration ■ It is the crossing of the boundary of a political or administrative unit for a certain minimum period of time. ■ It includes the movement of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people as well as economic migrants. International Basic Facts ■ Today 232 million people live outside their place of birth - it is about 3,2% of the world's population. ■ 1 of every 35 persons in the world is a migrant. ■ Current annual growth rate of international migrants is about 3%. Extranjeros comunitarios International migration remains highly concentrated ■ In 2013, half of all international migrants lived in 10 countries: the US hosting the largest number (45.8 million), followed by the Russian Federation (11 million); Germany (9.8 million); Saudi Arabia (9.1 million); United Arab Emirates (7.8 million); United Kingdom (7.8 million); France (7.4 million); Canada (7.3 million); Australia (6.5 million); and Spain (6.5 million). Adolescents, Youth and International Migration ■ Globally, there are approximately 35 million between the ages of 10 and 24 years. ■ 20-24 year olds represent the largest group among adolescent and youth migrants. ■ Males outnumber females. Forms of Migration ■ Voluntary migration • The migrant makes the decision to move (workers, intellectuals, etc.). • Most migration is voluntary. ■ Involuntary • Forced migration in which the mover has no role in the decision-making process. • Includes refugees, asylum seekers or refugees and people forced to move due to external factors (Military conscription, Children of migrants, Situations of divorce or separation, etc). Types of migration ■ Regular migrants ■ Irregular migrants ■ Refugees ■ Labour migration ■ Brain Drain Irregular Migration ■The people who enter or remain in a country of which they are not a citizen in breach of national laws. ■Irregular immigrants account for onethird to one-half of new entrants into developed countries, marking an increase of 20 per cent annual growth. Some Negative Consequences ■ Can also endanger the lives of the migrants concerned. A large but unknown number of people die each year trying to cross land and sea borders without being detected by the authorities. Human traffickers ruthlessly exploit migrants. ■ They can be at risk of exploitation by employers and landlords. ■ They are often unwilling to seek redress from authorities because they fear arrest and deportation. As a result, they do not always make use of public services to which they are entitled, for example emergency health care. Refugees ■ A person who due to to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of their nationality, and is unable to or, due to such fear, is unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of that country. (United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951). Facts on Refugees ■ The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants gives the world total as 12 million refugees. ■ Moreover, there are over 34 millions displaced by war, including internally displaced persons. ■ The largest source countries of refugees are Palestine, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, and Sudan. Labour Migration/Migrant Worker ■A person who is engaged or has been engaged in remunerated activity in a State of which he or she is not a national. (United Nations (UN) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 1990) Types of Labour Migration ■ Temporary labour migrants (also known as guest workers or overseas contract workers): People who migrate for a limited period of time in order to take up employment and send money home. ■ Highly skilled and business migrants: People with qualifications as managers, executives, professionals, technicians or similar, who move within the internal labour markets of trans-national corporations and international organizations, or who seek employment through international labour markets for scarce skills. Many countries welcome such migrants and have special 'skilled and business migration' programs to encourage them to come. Labour Migration will continue: ■ Differences in employment opportunities and living standards between countries. ■ Increased education and broader access to information on living conditions and employment opportunities abroad. ■ Established inter-country networks based on family, culture, and history. Impacts of Labour Migration ■ For countries of origin, in addition to the possibility of providing some relief from unemployment and absorbing an increase in the labour force, it can provide a form of developmental support, especially through remittances, transfer of know-how, and creation of business and trade networks ■ For receiving countries facing labour shortages, immigration can alleviate labour scarcity, facilitate occupational mobility, and add to the human capital stock of the receiving countries. Brain Drain ■ Definition • Relates to educationally specific selective migrations. • Some countries are losing the most educated segment of their population. • Can be both a benefit for the receiving country and a problem to the country of origin. ■ Receiving country • Getting highly qualified labor contributing to the economy right away. • Promotes economic growth in strategic sectors: science and technology. • Not having to pay education and health costs. • 30% of Mexicans with a PhD are in the US. Videos ■ International migrations (7:37) http://youtu.be/lOZmqIwqur4 ■ Positive images: Migrant journeys (3: 17) http://youtu.be/xNwrYNIkIVw ■ Postive images (1:11) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USpCGvpRn_8 Thank you for your attention Questions for reflection ■ What general feelings arise when you think about migrants? ■ What general feelings arise when you think about moving? ■ What specific features of your country would you miss the most? Please be specific. ■ What is intriguing to you about migrations? ■ What questions do you have about the personal experiences of migrant people? ■ What questions do you have about the experience of individuals moving into your country from other regions?