at Generation

advertisement
Sustainable Living Exhibition, Durban
6 September 2013
by Abigail Knox
Sustainable Living Exhibition, Durban
6 September 2013
• KZN Sustainable Energy Forum
• Energy Efficiency and Demand side management
by Abigail Knox
– UKZN energy saving HVAC pilot (commercial energy efficiency)
– Cato Manor Green Street Project (residential energy efficiency)
• RE & Electricity Generation:
– Soitec CSP (elec generation)
– Dube Trade Port Agrizone (embedded generation)
– NCP Alcohols (cogeneration)
• RE Manufacturing Capacity
– ARTSolar (Solar PV manufacturing)
Stakeholder Engagement
A platform for networking
Past KSEF Events:
• SWH Roll-out Workshop for Municipalities with MILE, CoGTA, Eskom
(2 March 2012)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
7th KSEF Meeting on Solar PV (27 March 2012)
Ocean Energy Workshop (3 May 2012)
8th KSEF Meeting: Biomass and Liquid Fuels (25 July 2012)
Solar PV Workshop for Business (30 October 2012)
9th KSEF Meeting: Energy Poverty and Rural Energisation (2 Nov 2012)
What RE Investors Want? (14 Feb 2013)
HVAC and Sustainable Energy with SAIRAC (7 May 2013)
The Electricity Grid (21 May 2013)
Recent Developments in Small Hydro (13 June 2013)
Workshop on Business Models and Wheeling Agreements (22 July 2013)
Solar Thermal Power with SANEA (9 October 2013)
Addressing local challenges
Research and Development
Learning by doing
Sharing Learnings
Promoting success
Demonstrating Solutions
KSEF Members:
• Since 2012 the membership has
grown from 350 to over 700:
•
•
•
•
commercial = 87%
government = 5%
NGO/CBO = 3%
Research = 5%
Register for free
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Average daily Load Curve
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Peak Demand Highest in Winter
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Cost of meeting Peak Demand with Gas
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
•
•
•
•
•
Energy efficient appliances
System Optimisation
Smart metering
Behaviour change
Examples
– UKZN energy saving HVAC pilot (commercial
energy efficiency)
– Cato Manor Green Street Project (residential
energy efficiency)
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
• ~60-65% is Heating Ventilation and
Air Conditioning (HVAC)
• 10-15% hot water
• 30-20% lighting and general office
usage
With HVAC at ~60-65% of total consumption, the
largest energy and financial savings may be made
via load shifting and thermal storage in
combination with the ToU tariffs.
General office space and lighting cannot be load
shifted (cheaply).
Hence they offer best combined energy and
financial savings or best ROI.
Source: Gregory Diana, Head of the Energy Management Programme at UKZN
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
• Daily consumption remains
constant
• Load curve flattens
• Rand savings from displacing
demand during peak to off-peak
when Time of Use (ToU) tariffs
apply
• Potential for more thermal storage at
UKZN:
– Howard College Campus has ~ 50% thermal
storage for all its HVAC at the moment.
– Westville (~2.5 MW),
– Medical School (300 kW),
– Edgewood (~100 kW) and
– Pmb ( 1 MW)
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Environmental Impact of Installing Efficient Showerheads:
Item
Factors [/kWh]
kWh Savings Projected
per year
Reductions
per year
Coal use (kilogram)
0.54
3,062,625.4
1,653,832 Kg
Water use (litre) at
Generation
1.37
3,062,625.4
4,195,834 Lt
Ash produce (gram)
155
3,062,625.4
474,711,129 gr
Particulate emissions
(gram)
0.31
3,062,625.4
949,422 gr
CO2 emissions (kilogram)
0.99
3,062,625.4
3,032,026 Kg
SOx emissions (gram)
7.93
3,062,625.4
24,286,834 gr
NOx emissions (gram)
4.19
3,062,625.4
12,832,514 gr
Water Save through showerheads [Liter/ Year]
160,124,124 Lt
Source: Gregory Diana, Head of the Energy Management Programme at UKZN
off-peak thermal storage system for hot water at residences
• non-pressure system
and only uses
electricity to make
hot water when
electricity is
cheapest.
• Low pressure system
reduce risk and
allow for much
cheaper tank ~ 50%
saving over
conventional geyser.
• Short pay-back
period
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Source: Gregory Diana, Head of the Energy Management Programme at UKZN
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Improving Lives by Greening Low Cost Housing
•Initiative of Green Building Council of South Africa
•Funded by British High Commission & Phase 2 by Australian Gov’t
Source: Nick Alcock, Khanyisa Projects download original presentation
Low Pressure Solar Water Heaters (SWH)
• SABS approved
• 85% local
components
Installation of light weight ceiling
• Thermal Resistance
Value (R Value) of 1
• 4 – 6 degrees cooler
during hottest time
of day
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Heat Insulation cookers
• If used 3 times a day
can reduce 0,5
tonnes CO2 per year
Safe Electrical Wiring
• Safe wiring reduces risk
of fires and shocks
• Better security through
improved lighting
LED Street Lights
Also…Rain water harvesting, food gardens & fruit trees
Electricity Industry overview
•Electricity price rising rapidly
•Electricity demand rising
•REIPP Procurement Programme by DoE
3,725MW allocated to RE
–
–
•
•
3,625 MW Large Scale (over 5MW)
100 MW Small Scale (1MW – 5MW)
Embedded generation (10kW – 1MW)
Co-generation
REIPPP projects awarded by province in REIPPP Round 1
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Review of Successful bids Round 1 and 2
Technologies
Solar PV
Solar CSP
Onshore Wind
Small Hydro
Landfill Gas
Biomass
Biogas
Total
Total
Allocation to preferred bidders
Allocation Nov 2011
May 2012
1450
200
1850
75
25
12,5
12,5
3625
631,5
150
634
0
0
0
0
1415,5
Remaining
Allocation
417,1
50
562,6
14,3
0
0
0
1044
256
0
798,9
60,7
25
12,5
12,5
1165,6
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Examples
• Soitec Concentrated Solar Photovoltaic (electricity
generation)
• Dube Trade Port Agrizone (embedded generation)
• NCP Alcohols (cogeneration)
– also Umzimkulu IlovoSugar Mill, Amatikulu Tongaat
Hulett Sugar Mill
Soitec Solar CPV Plant
• 477 KWp
Concentrated Solar
Photovoltaic Plant
• Near Hazelmere Dam
• Sells electricity to
eThekwini
Soitec Solar CPV Plant
• Dual-axis tracker
systems enable the CPV
unites to follow the
course of the sun in its
azimuth (east to west)
and its elevation (height
above horizon).
Watch the video on our website here
Soitec Solar CPV Plant
• Concentrate sunlight
onto a very small
surface by a factor of
500
• Small surface area
reduces amount of
costly cell material
required.
RE Power station  Electricity Grid
 electricity meter 
end use
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
NCP Alcohols 3MW
Cogeneration
• Uses by-product of its production
process, steam, to generate
electricity.
• Piped gas-fired high pressure
boilers drive a 3MW steam turbine
for 350 days of the year to not
only provide all the plant
electricity requirements, but also
low pressure steam from the
turbine exhaust.
Read more here
Electricity Grid  electricity meter  cogeneration  production / end use
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Dube Trade Port Agrizone
• Solar PV 700 KWp
• Generation for
own-use
• Grid tie
Dube Trade Port Agrizone
• Even with additional
capacity, very little
power is being exported
• designed to generate
enough power to
supplement the
electricity requirements
for the packhouse and
greenhouse C,
estimated at 3800-4000
kWh/day over a 24hour
period.
Embedded / Decentralised Generation
•The KSEF Guide to Application Procedures for Embedded
Power Generators in KZN
– industry standards,
– Grid tie approval,
– licenses and contracts from the relevant electricity distributor.
•KZN Munics that have already accepted grid-tie:
– eThekwini
– Newcastle
– uMhlatuze (Richards Bay)
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
• KZN Solar PV roof top availability database
– KZN RFI Solar PV
• eThekwini buys electricity from local generators
– Payment is based on the avoided cost principle. This
means that eThekwini is able to pay generators for
electricity at the same price it would have cost to
purchase electricity from Eskom. Eskom sells electricity
to municipalities at the Megaflex rate, which is based on
a time of use tariff, hence eThekwini applies the
Industrial Time of Use tariff to embedded generators.
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
• eThekwini guidelines for connecting to the grid
– “Energy rates are paid to generators based on when they
generated, Peak time periods attract the highest rates whilst offpeak attract the lowest.
• Network Demand charge (R 16.41 / kVA) is
paid base on what your generation demand
is at the time of Eskom’s maximum
demand. In Durban, this occurs between
4pm-6:30pm.
• Voltage surcharge (10.05%) payable as
localised generation off-sets losses and
reduces the loading on the transmission
network.”
HIGH
SEASON
c/kWh
PEAK
197.32
STANDARD
OFFPEAK
51.42
27.52
LOW
SEASON
PEAK
STANDARD
OFFPEAK
c/kWh
55.19
33.86
23.69
• Download eThekwini Presentation:
• Guidelines for connecting to the grid
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Electricity Grid  electricity meter  embedded generation  end use
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
ARTSolar PV manufacturers
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
• Production capacity of 250,000 solar PV modules per
year
• Local content can range from 5 – 50% depending on
certain material inputs.
– connection boxes, glass and aluminium can be sourced
locally.
– The additional costs of a 50% local content PV module are
about 10-15%.
• Locally made Solar PV panels are about R1 more
expensive per Watt than imported panels.
– China dominates market because they silicon cells locally
at a price 30-60% cheaper
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
www.kznenergy.org.za
www.kznenergy.org.za
[email protected]
Download
Related flashcards

Astrophysics

65 cards

S-type asteroids

71 cards

Black holes

19 cards

Create Flashcards