Civilization in Southeast Asia

Geography and cultural influences
Agricultural or trading economies
 Between China and India
 Two parts:
Mainland region from the Chinese border to the tip of the
Malay Peninsula.
Archipelago= Chain of islands
 Present-day Indonesia and the Philippines
 “Golden Region”, or “Golden Islands”
 Densely populated and highly advanced.
 Several mountain regions and river valleys.
 Might explain why SE Asia is one of the few regions in
Asia that was never unified under a single government.
Formation of States
 500-1500 states developed in SE Asia.
 Used models from China and India.
 Vietnam
 Conquered by China in 111 B.C.
Chinese wanted to make Vietnam part of China
10th century Vietnam finally overthrew Chinese rule.
Took Chinese model of centralized government.
 Called Dai Viet (Great Viet).
 Adopted Confucianism
 Used Civil Service examination
 Present-day Cambodia
 Jayavarman= united the Khmer (kuh-MEHR) people.
Crowned god-king of his people.
 Destroyed by the Thai in 1432.
 Appeared in 6th century as frontier people in China.
 11th-12th century moved southward.
 Set up capital at Ayutthaya (ah-YU-tuh-yuh).
 Converted to Buddhism
 Borrowed Indian political practices.
 People who had migrated from the highlands of Tibet
in 7th century A.D. (probably to escape the Chinese
Pastoral people, but adopted farming when arriving in
SE Asia.
Founded Pagan (pah-GAHN)
Converted to Buddhism
Adopted Indian political institutions and culture.
The Malay World
 Tied to the trade that passed from East Asia in the Indian
 Numerous separate communities
 Two organized states emerged:
 Srivijaya (SHREE-vih-JAY-uh)
Dominated the trade route passing through the Strait of Malacca,
Wealth = Depended on trade
 Kingdom of Sailendra
Emerged in eastern Java.
Wealth= Depended primary on farming
 Both influenced by Indian culture!
 Islamic state around 1400
 A peninsula between the Indian Ocean and the South
China Sea.
 Major trade port.
 The entire population of the region was converted to
Islam and become part of the Sultan of Melaka.