Geography and cultural influences Agricultural or trading economies Geography Between China and India Two parts: Mainland region from the Chinese border to the tip of the Malay Peninsula. Archipelago= Chain of islands Present-day Indonesia and the Philippines “Golden Region”, or “Golden Islands” Densely populated and highly advanced. Several mountain regions and river valleys. Might explain why SE Asia is one of the few regions in Asia that was never unified under a single government. Formation of States 500-1500 states developed in SE Asia. Used models from China and India. Vietnam Conquered by China in 111 B.C. Chinese wanted to make Vietnam part of China 10th century Vietnam finally overthrew Chinese rule. Took Chinese model of centralized government. Called Dai Viet (Great Viet). Adopted Confucianism Used Civil Service examination Angkor Present-day Cambodia Jayavarman= united the Khmer (kuh-MEHR) people. Crowned god-king of his people. Destroyed by the Thai in 1432. Thailand Appeared in 6th century as frontier people in China. 11th-12th century moved southward. Set up capital at Ayutthaya (ah-YU-tuh-yuh). Converted to Buddhism Borrowed Indian political practices. Burma People who had migrated from the highlands of Tibet in 7th century A.D. (probably to escape the Chinese armies) Pastoral people, but adopted farming when arriving in SE Asia. Founded Pagan (pah-GAHN) Converted to Buddhism Adopted Indian political institutions and culture. The Malay World Tied to the trade that passed from East Asia in the Indian Ocean. Numerous separate communities Two organized states emerged: Srivijaya (SHREE-vih-JAY-uh) Dominated the trade route passing through the Strait of Malacca, Wealth = Depended on trade Kingdom of Sailendra Emerged in eastern Java. Wealth= Depended primary on farming Both influenced by Indian culture! Melaka Islamic state around 1400 A peninsula between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Major trade port. The entire population of the region was converted to Islam and become part of the Sultan of Melaka.