The French Revolution and the Age of Napoleon Late Stages of the French Revolution Radicals- Jacobins in power with Robespierre heading the Committee of Public Safety. His Reign of Terror ends with his execution. Political Factions Moderates- In 1794 take control of the government from Robespierre. Royalists- want France to return to a monarchy. 1794- Moderates set up a 5 man government called the Directory= very corrupt. In 1799 the Directory is overthrown with the help of Napoleon. A 3 man governing board called the Consulate is set up. Napoleon later becomes 1st Consul. Napoleon- Savior of the Revolution • Born in Corsica in 1769. • Becomes a lieutenant in the French Army at age 20. • Quickly became a general during the turmoil of the revolution. Becomes the most feared general in all of Europe. • 1st Consul 1799 • Consul for Life 1801 • Emperor 1804 Militarily • Conquers much of Europe • Creates new social and government systems throughout Europe. • Can never take over Britain. • Invades Russia in 1812. • In 1813, Napoleon defeated in the Battle of Nations at Leipzig by a combined military force of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia. Militarily • Napoleon abdicates throne and is exiled to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean Sea. • Napoleon escapes from exile and return to France. • For 100 Days he leads his army again. • Finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815. Politically REFORMS: • Modernizes finances, regulates economy, encourages new industry, built canals and roads, promoted public education, made peace with The Church. ALSO: • Supported across class lines • Women lose rights- maintain minor status Legacy • Removed the “Old Order” from much of Europe. • Napoleonic Codes- embody Enlightenment principles of equality, religious tolerance, advancement on merit not family name. • Soon after, all of Europe would change. Death • Dies on the island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean in 1821.