Ventilation/Perfusion Ratios in
the Lung
O2 Transport in the Blood
• O2 is bound to hemoglobin (Hb) for
transport in the blood
– Oxyhemoglobin: O2 bound to Hb
– Deoxyhemoglobin: O2 not bound to Hb
Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation
O2-Hb Dissociation Curve:
Effect of pH
• Blood pH declines during heavy exercise
• Results in a “rightward” shift of the curve
– Bohr effect
– Favors “offloading” of O2 to the tissues
pH and O2-Hem Diss. Curve
O2-Hb Dissociation Curve:
Effect of Temperature
• Increased blood temperature results in a
weaker Hb-O2 bond
• Rightward shift of curve
– Easier “offloading” of O2 at tissues
Temp. and O2-Hem Diss. Curve
O2 Transport in Muscle
• Myoglobin (Mb) shuttles O2 from the cell
membrane to the mitochondria
• Higher affinity for O2 than hemoglobin
– Even at low PO2
– Allows Mb to store O2
Diss. Curve - Myoglobin vs.
CO2 Transport in Blood
• Dissolved in plasma (10%)
• Bound to Hb (20%)
• Bicarbonate (70%)
– CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3– Also important for buffering H+
3 Forms of CO2 Transport in Blood
CO2 Exchange in Lung
Ventilation and Acid-Base Balance
• Blood pH is regulated in part by ventilation
• An increase in ventilation causes exhalation
of additional CO2
– Reduces blood PCO2
– Lowers H+ concentration
Transition from Rest to Steady State
Exercise in a Hot Environment
• During prolonged submaximal exercise:
– Ventilation tends to drift upward
– Little change in PCO2
– Higher ventilation not due to increased PCO2
Ventilation vs. Hot/Humid
Respiratory Parameters (Elite vs. Untrained)
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