Structure of the Respiratory system

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P6 M3
Respiratory system works with the
Cardiovascular system…
Respiratory System:
• Intakes oxygen
• Releases carbon dioxide
waste
Circulatory system:
• Transports gases in blood
between lungs and cells
Structure of the RESPIRATORY
system (RS)
Task…
In order to gain a head start on the assessment you guys need to find a
blank pictures of the various respiratory system structures and begin
to label them:
nasal cavity
epiglottis
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchus
bronchioles
lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity, visceral
pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli)
diaphragm
intercostal muscles (external and internal)
The Importance of the RS
• If respiratory system and/or
circulatory system fails, death
will occur
• Cells need O2 for work;
release CO2 as a waste
product
• Accumulation of excess CO2
is toxic to cells and MUST be
removed
Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
• Nasal cavity
Space above and behind the nose
Made of cartilage and bone
Divided into 2 by a cartilaginous septum
Hairs within the nostrils filter out dust
etc before air passes into two nasal
cavities.
– Designed to warm, moisten, and filter
air before it passes to the nasopharynx
–
–
–
–
– A mucous layer
• Pharynx – (throat)
– Funnel shaped
– Connects to larynx and oesophagus
– Small muscular tube
– conducts food and air
– exchanges air with Eustachian
tube to equalize pressure
Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
• Larynx – (voice box)
– Connects the pharynx and
the trachea.
– Made of cartilage and
muscle
– contains vocal cords
– Helps us to speak
• Epiglottis
― flap of cartilage that covers
trachea
― ensures food travels down
the esophagus
Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
• Trachea – (windpipe)
– Tubular passageway (12
cm long 2 cm diameter) to
carry air towards the lungs
– C-shaped cartilage rings to
keep it open
– Divides at end into :
Bronchi
larynx
trachea
bronchi
bronchioles
Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
• Bronchi:
–
–
–
–
Pair of tubes that branch from trachea and enter lungs
Have cartilage plates to keep them open
Lining is ciliated & secretes mucus
By now air is warm, moist and free from most impurities
• Each bronchi divides into:
–
–
–
–
Lobar bronchi
Segmental bronchi
23 branches in total
Tree
Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
• Bronchioles –
– tiny tubes extend from the bronchi
– lacking cartilage and cilia
– possess smooth muscle
bronchiole
smooth muscle
– They about
1mm diameter
– Terminate in
clusters of
alveoli
Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Lungs
– Two cone shaped organs suspended
in the pleural cavities
– Surrounded by a pleural membrane
– Made of elastic tissue
– Divide into lobes
– Right is larger as left has to
accommodate the heart
• This space is known as the
cardiac notch
Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
• Lungs - lobes
–Each lung is divided
into lobes.
–The right lung has
three lobes
–The left lung has only 2
lobes.
• Visceral Pleura
– Is the innermost of the
two pleural membranes. It
covers the surface of the
lung
• Pleural
membrane
– The lungs are surrounded
by membranes known as
pleura
– These contain a cavity with
fluid that lubricates the
surfaces as the lungs
expand and contract.
– Their main job is to prevent
friction and keep the lungs
airtight,
•Pleural Fluid
– The pleural membrane produces
pleural fluid, which fills the space
between the visceral and parietal
pleura. This lubricating fluid allows the
lungs to glide over one another easily.
• Thoracic Cavity
– This is the full name for the
chamber of the chest that is
protected by the thoracic wall. It
is protected from the abdominal
cavity by the diaphragm
Respiratory Structures and Organs: Explained
Alveoli
• Around the bronchioles are 600 million alveoli in each lung.
• Each one is in contact with a capillary
• This is where exchange of O2 and CO2 takes place.
Alveoli
• Cup shaped
structures that
resemble bunches of
grapes
• covered with
SURFACTANT that
keep them from
collapsing
• Provide a
huge area
for gas
exchange
Respiratory
Muscles
• Intercostal
muscles
– External intercostals
• Contract to pull the rib
cage up when we
breathe in
– Internal intercostals
• Contract to pull the rib
cage down when we
breathe out
– Attach between the
ribs
• Diaphragm
– Dome shaped muscle at the bottom of the ribcage
– Breathing in - Contracts – flattens, making chest cavity larger and
drawing air in.
Anatomy of the Respiratory
system…
•
Mouth & Nose.
Passes through the Pharynx (back of throat).
Passes through the Larynx (responsible for your voice production).
•
Air passes over the
•
•
Air enters through the
•
Epiglottis (stops food going down our windpipe/trachea).
Air enters the Trachea, membranous tube that delivers air to the lungs.
•
Trachea divides into 2
•
2 main Bronchi divide into
8 million bronchioles in each lung.
•
Around the Bronchioles you will find groups of air sacs called
(600 million in
each lung).
Alveoli are the catalyst for gas exchange (O2 and CO2), as they are in contact with the
capillaries.
•
Bronchi, one into each lung.
Bronchioles, which further subdivide 23 times into
Alveoli
Describe the
(1) Structure with
all the parts named BELOW and
(2)
Function (1-4 BELOW) of the
respiratory system.
1. Structure of the respiratory
system:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Nasal cavity
Epiglottis
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchus
Bronchioles
Lungs (lobes, pleural membrane, thoracic cavity,
visceral pleura, pleural fluid, alveoli)
Diaphragm
Intercostal muscles (external and internal)
Examine the respiratory system
explain
and
how it works and
how each part of the system is
designed to meet its function
2. Function:
1. Gaseous exchange
2. Mechanisms of breathing
(inspiration and expiration)
3. Lung volumes: e.g. tidal
volume, vital capacity, residual
volume
4. Control of breathing (neural and
chemical)
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