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FOURTH GENERATION (4G) CELLPHONE
NETWORKS
BY: SALOMÉ THÉRIAULT
COMM 1631, WINTER 2011
WHAT IS 4G ?
 4G STANDS FOR THE FOURTH GENERATION OF CELLULAR WIRELESS STANDARDS.
 IT IS A FASTER AND BETTER NETWORK
 4G PROVIDES:
ULTRA-BROADBAND INTERNET ACCESS
IP TECHNOLOGY
GAMING SERVICES
STREAMED MULTIMEDIA, ETC.
 ALLOWS DATA AND VOICE TO BE CARRIED OUT
ON THE SAME NETWORK
ITU REQUIREMENTS AND 4G WIRELESS STANDARDS
 BASED ON AN ALL-IP PACKET SWITCHED NETWORK
 PEAK DATA RATES: APPROXIMATELY 100 MBIT/S FOR HIGH MOBILITY (EG. MOBILE ACCESS ) AND
APPROXIMATELY 1 GBIT/S FOR LOW MOBILITY ( EG. NOMADIC/LOCAL WIRELESS ACCESS)
 DYNAMICALLY SHARE & UTILIZE NETWORK RESOURCES TO SUPPORT MORE SIMULTANEOUS USERS PER
CELL
 SCALABLE CHANNEL BANDWIDTH, BETWEEN 5 AND 20 MHZ, OPTIONALLY UP TO 40 MHZ
ITU REQUIREMENTS AND 4G WIRELESS STANDARDS
 PEAK LINK SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY OF 15 BIT/S/HZ IN THE DOWNLINK, AND 6.75 BIT/S/HZ IN THE UPLINK
 SYSTEM SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY OF UP TO 3 BIT/S/HZ/CELL IN THE DOWNLINK AND 2.25 BIT/S/HZ/CELL FOR
INDOOR USAGE
 SMOOTH HANDOVERS ACROSS HETEROGENEOUS NETWORKS
 OFFER HIGH QUALITY OF SERVICE FOR NEXT GENERATION MULTIMEDIA SUPPORT
HISTORY
 NEW GENERATIONS APPEARED APROXIMATELY EVERY TEN YEARS

ANALOG (1G): speeds up to 2.4kbps introduced in the early 1980s and completed
in the early 1990s

DIGITAL TRANSMISSION (2G): digital signal for voice and the speeds up to
64kbps. Developed in the late 1980s and finished in the late 1990s
HISTORY
 - MULTI-MEDIA SUPPORT (3G): 3G wireless system with speeds from 125kbps to
2Mbps developed in the late 1990s and might be well-done in the late 2000s.
 4G: 2010
EVOLUTION FROM 3G TO 4G
 SPEEDS HAVE IMPROVED
10 TIMES FASTER THAN 3G
FOR EXAMPLE:

 GLOBAL ROAMING
 INTERFACE WITH WIRE-LINE INTERNET
 QOS
 SECURITY
 4G IS SUPPORTED BY: IPV6, OFDM, MC-CDMA, LAS-CDMA, UWB AND NETWORK-
LMDS
 THEY CAN BE ARRANGED IN DIFFERENT ZONE SIZE
COMPONENTS
 IPV6 SUPPORT:
 UNLIKE 3G, WHICH IS BASED ON TWO PARALLEL INFRASTRUCTURES
CONSISTING OF CIRCUIT SWITCHED AND PACKET SWITCHED NETWORK NODES,
4G WILL IS BASED ON PACKET SWITCHING
 ADVANCED ANTENNA SYSTEMS:
THE PERFORMANCE OF RADIO COMMUNICATIONS DEPENDS ON AN ANTENNA
SYSTEM: SMART ANTENNA
 MULTIPLE ANTENNA TECHNOLOGIES ARE EMERGING TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL
OF 4G SYSTEMS SUCH AS HIGH RATE, HIGH RELIABILITY, AND LONG RANGE
COMMUNICATIONS

COMPONENTS
 SOFTWARE-DEFINED RADIO (SDR):
 SDR
IS ONE FORM OF OPEN WIRELESS ARCHITECTURE
 SINCE 4G IS A COLLECTION OF WIRELESS STANDARDS, THE FINAL
FORM OF A 4G DEVICE WILL CONSTITUTE VARIOUS STANDARDS
HOW 4G WORKS
 EACH NODE IS ASSIGNED TO A 4G-IP ADDRESS (BASED ON IPV6)
 FORMED BY A PERMANENT HOME IP ADDRESS AND A DYNAMIC CARE OF
ADDRESS THAT REPRESENTS THE ACTUAL LOCATION
 IF A DEVICE IN THE INTERNET WANTS TO COMMUNICATE WITH CELL PHONES IN
THE WIRELESS NETWORK, THE COMPUTERS WILL SEND A PACKET TO THE 4GIP ADDRESS OF THE CELL PHONE TARGETING THE HOME ADDRESS
HOW 4G WORKS
 A DIRECTORY SERVER ON THE CELL PHONE’S HOME NETWORK FORWARDS THE PACKET TO
THE CELL PHONE’S CARE OF ADDRESS THROUGH A TUNNEL
 THE DIRECTORY INFORMS THE COMPUTER THAT THE CELL PHONE’S CARE OF ADDRESS (REAL
LOCATION) AS WELL, SO THE NEXT PACKETS CAN BE SENT TO THE CELL PHONE DIRECTLY
 THE 4G-IP ADDRESS CAN CARRY MORE INFORMATION THAN THE IP ADDRESS USED IN 3G
 IPV6 = INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 INCLUDING 128 BITS, 4 TIMES MORE THAN 32BITS IP
ADDRESS IN IPV4
WHAT CAN WE DO WITH A 4G?
 STREAM HD VIDEOS/MOVIES
 DOWNLOAD MASSIVE FILES
 DOWNLOAD MUSIC FAST
 VIDEO CHATS
 HI-RES PHOTO DOWNLOAD
 CONNECT FIVE DEVICES
4G MARKET WATCH
 GROWTH IN THE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT BUISINESS
IS ACCELERATING IN 2011 AND ON OF THE MAIN REASON IS DRIVEN BY
THE TRANSITION TO 4G
 FACTORY REVENUE FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS IN 2011 IS
ESTIMATED TO REACH 302.7 BILLION, 20.6% UP FROM 2010
4G MARKET WATCH
 BY 2014, THE INDUSTRY IS EXPECTED TO ADD ANOTHER $100 BILLION
DOLLARS ACCUMULATING $413.3 BILLION WORLDWIDE IN EQUIPMENT
REVENUE
IN THE LONG RUN
 4G COULD BE CHEAPER
700 MHZ-BASED SIGNALS TRAVEL FURTHER SO CARRIERS WILL HAVE TO
INSTALL EQUIPMENT ON FEWER TOWERS
 THIS WILL RESULT IN LESS EXPENSIVE NETWORK COSTS.
 IT WILL ALSO BENEFITS CONSUMERS BECAUSE: IF COSTS CARRIERS LESS
TO PROVIDE SERVICES, THEY WILL HAVE MORE ROOM TO MOVE ON PRICING
PLANS

CONCLUSION
 WITH ADVANCING TECHNOLOGIES, WHO KNOWS HOW FAR NETWORKS
WILL DEVELOP
 4G LETS US BROADCAST FURTHER AND FASTER AND ALSO ALLOWS
US TO SAVE TIME BY IMPROVING RECEPTIONS AND UPLOAD SPEEDS
RESOURCES
 “4G.” Wikipedia. Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, 29 Jan. 2011. Web.
Jan. 2011.
 Levy, Carmi. “The 4G revolution: Canadians face hurdles in search for faster
wireless.” The Star. Copyright Toronto Star 1996-2010, Nov. 27 2010. Web.
Jan. 2011
 Huang, Shih-Lian. “Evolution from 3G to 4G and beyond (5G).” DaniWeb.
2010 DaniWeb LLC, Nov. 27 2010. Web. Jan. 2011
 Sideco, Francis. “4G Transition and Tablet Devices Spur Growth of Mobile
Communications in 2011.” iSuppli. 2010 iSuppli Corporation, Jan. 20 2011.
Web. Jan. 2011
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