Key Concepts Initial Size Up of the Structure

UL/NIST Studies
Tactical Findings
Implementation into Zone 1
Tactical Considerations
and Best Practices
Four Key Concepts
Initial Size up
Fire Attack Considerations
Controlling the Flow Path
Key Concepts
Initial Size Up of the Structure
Initial Size Up of the Structure
The first arriving unit must perform a size up
that will address the following:
• Determine the location of the fire
– Conduct a 360
– Identify basement, exterior fire
– Stress the use of the TIC during size up.
– Announce location of fire to in coming units.
Initial Size Up of the Structure
• Identify the flow path
Single Opening
Initial Size Up of the Structure
• Rescue
– Determination of immediate rescue.
– Fire extinguishment may be warranted before
rescue is started.
Initial Size Up of the Structure
• Cooling the space/Extinguishment
From Best Practices:
Water should be applied to the fire as soon as possible from the
safest location to reduce the heat release rates from burning
materials. Any limited-duration water stream applied from the
exterior should be immediately followed by an aggressive interior
attack of any remaining fire.
Key Concepts
Fire Attack Considerations
From Best Practices:
While front door tactics provide quick access to most areas of the structure,
water applied from the safest area – interior or exterior – will result in the
fastest way to improve interior conditions for both occupants and fire control
• Front Door
• Exterior/Front Door
• Front Door/Exterior
Fire Attack Considerations
• Why hit it from outside?
– Cool the space.
– Reduces flashover.
– Interior application delayed.
– Solid or straight stream directed at the ceiling to
create large water droplets.
An exterior attack is Offensive Mode if you remain
forward moving
Fire Attack Considerations
• Water application to cool hot smoke
– Reduce flashover
LA County FD
Key Concepts
Controlling the Flow Path
Controlling the Flow Path
• Opening doors and or windows is venting
– Smoke and heat will travel to low pressure- an
opening to the outside
– Ventilation to flashover timeline.
LA County FD
Controlling the Flow Path
• Techniques for door control
Key Concepts
• Coordination of fire attack and ventilation
– Ventilation too early will promote rapid buildup of
• Venting is not cooling.
• Ventilating and water application is cooling.
• Requires Communication between fire attack
and ventilation crews
1. Pre Assignment: Lesson from UL Learnshare-
2. PowerPoint and discussion/lecture by Operations
Battalion Chiefs.
3. Tabletop Applications: Tactical Training Program.
4. Hands on training: EMTG Live Fire Training November
and December 2014
5. Review the use of the concepts at each PIA.
Other On-Line Resources
Good article about ventilation and tactics
Great three-part series on flow path, in 1-hour segments
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