The Greek City States

The Roman Republic
Compare and contrast the patricians and plebeians.
-Describe the social structure and daily life of Rome.
-Define tribunes.
-What were the Punic Wars?
-Who was Julius Caesar?
-How does the Roman Republic End?
The Roman Republic
Roman citizens were divided into two groups .
The wealthiest, most powerful citizens were
called patricians. All of the other citizens were
called plebeians.
About 90% of Roman citizens were plebeians.
They included farmers, soldiers and merchants.
In a republic citizens have the right to vote or
choose their leaders.
Those who were elected to represent the people
are called representatives.
Roman representatives served in a governing
body called a Senate.
How the Romans Governed
Slaves and most foreigners were not considered
citizens. Women were citizens but had few rights.
They could not vote or hold public office. Women
could own property and testify in court.
At first only the rich patricians ran the Roman
Republic. Each year two patricians were chosen
as consuls, or officials who managed the
government and army.
Each of the consuls had the power to stop the
other consul from taking an action if he did not
agree with that action.
In an emergency, the consuls sometimes named
one person to rule called a Dictator or someone
who had total control of the people.
The Tribunes
• The plebeians began to demand for more
rights and threatened to start their own city.
This frightened the patricians, who were afraid
of losing the labor of the plebeians.
•Their walkout led to the creation of tribunes
or officials who were elected to protect the
interests of the plebeians. There were 10
tribunes that were elected and held office each
•Any one of the tribunes could stop the actions
of the senate by shouting, “Veto” a latin word
meaning, “I forbid”.
Daily Life
Boys and a few girls from wealthy families got to
go to school. Some students were taught at
home by Greek slaves who served as tutors.
After school, children played with toys such as
marbles, dolls, model chariots and animals.
The main meal was eaten in the afternoon.
Wealthy people ate fish, birds, olive oil with
herbs, dates and pork. They had dogs as pets to
guard their homes. They also used dogs to hunt
small animals and birds.
Poor citizens ate wheat, barley, bread, olives and
meat scraps.
Because the climate in Rome was warm, light
clothing was worn. Men wore togas and women
wore two layers of tunics which resembled long
shirts or gowns.
Roman Dress
Wars with Carthage
Carthage was a city-state located in North Africa
that had become very powerful. It’s army was
one of the strongest in the ancient world.
In 264 BC Rome and Carthage fought three
destructive wars knows as the Punic Wars.
All together, these wars lasted nearly 120 years.
The Romans won all three.
In the second war, the Carthaginian general
Hannibal launched an invasion from Spain. He
took a herd of elephants and crossed the Alps for
a sneak attack against the Romans.
Rome was saved when a general named Scipio
attacked Carthage.
50 years later, a third war broke out. This time
the Romans captured and destroyed Carthage.
Roads in the Republic
Roman roads were built to last. Many
of them lasted 1,000 years.
The Appian Way is the most famous
of these roads and is still used today.
It stretched for more than 350 miles
south and then east of Rome.
The Republic Ends
• Patricians kept the wealth for themselves.
• Slaves took jobs from the plebeians.
• The fighting in Italy caused homes and
farmland to be destroyed.
• Julius Caesar was one of the most famous
generals or leaders. His motto was “I came, I
saw, I conquered”.
• He became too powerful and the patricians
were afraid that he would destroy the republic.
• In 44BC Caesar was stabbed.
• Civil War broke out due to leaders fighting for
Roman Road
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