Words and Expressions—Word Using

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 Text Study
 Notes to the Text
 Words and Expressions
 Idea Sharing
 Writing
 Understanding
 Structure Analysis
 Summary
 Reproduction
2
1
Text Study—Understanding
I. Understanding
Answer the following questions:
1. What are the two things Americans try to save?
Time and labor (Para. 1)
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1
Text Study—Understanding
2. What does time mean to Americans?
precious resources
Time is regarded as ________________.
(Para. 2)
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1
Text Study—Understanding
3. How do Americans do everything?
4. When do Americans start talking
business?
5. How do Americans save time?
in a rush
• They do everything ________.
quickly
• They start talking business _______.
• They work hard at the task of saving time
producing a steady flow of laborby ______________________________
saving devices . (Para. 3-7)
_____________
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1
Text Study—Understanding
6. What’s the conclusion?
have different ideas
The foreigners _________________
from those of American. (Para. 8)
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1
Text Study—Understanding
To successfully solve a problem
and to fulfill a job with speed is
taken by __________ as a sign of
The _________ consider it proper
to ____________________ .
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1
Text Study—Structure Analysis
II. Structure Analysis
A. The Writing Model of the Passage:
General Statement + Illustration + Emphasis
• What is the General Statement ?
• What is the illustration?
• What does the writer emphasize?
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1
Text Study—Structure Analysis
The general statement (Para.1~2)
• What does the writer want to tell us ?
time-conscious .
Americans are _____________
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Text Study—Structure Analysis
Illustration: (Para.3~7)
the foreigner’s first impression of the U.S
Para.3: Everyone in the U.S. is in a rush.
Para.4: Americans start talking business
quickly.
Para.5-7: Americans work hard to save time.
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Text Study—Structure Analysis
Emphasis by contrast (Para.8)
Americans take it as a sign of skillfulness to
do things quickly, while the foreigners
consider it proper to take time doing things.
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1
Text Study—Structure Analysis
B. The way to develop paragraphs:
General Statement + Specific Details +
Reason
The writer presents the general statement
by giving specific details, then telling the
reasons.
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1
Text Study—Structure Analysis
Work with your partner and find out the General
Statement, the specific details and the related reason
in Paragraph 3:
Tips
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1
Text Study—Structure Analysis
General statement:
Everyone is in a rush — often under pressure
_____________________________________.
Specific details :
city people, hurrying to …
1. _________________________________
working time, precious …
2. _________________________________
abrupt, people, push past …
3. drivers,
_________________________________
The reason:
This
is because people value time highly
__________________________________.
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1
Text Study—Structure Analysis
Paragraph 7 is also developed in this way. Now
pick out the general statement, specific details
and the reason in it.
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1
Text Study—Structure Analysis
General statement:
The U.S. is definitely a telephone country
_____________________________________.
Specific details :
everyone, telephone, conduct business …
__________________________________
The reason :
save, feet, time …
1. telephones,
___________________________________
2. Telephone
___________________________________
service, superb, postal service,
__________________________________
efficient …
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Text Study—Summary
1
III. Summary
time-conscious people. They value
Americans are ____________
precious
time and save it carefully. Time is a real, ________
resource to them so every minute must count
_____.
in a
Foreigners may think Americans are always _____
hurry
____ and under pressure. Smiles, short
conversations, and small exchanges with strangers
wasting
don’t exist because Americans dislike “_______”
to o mu ch ti me . Am er i cans as s e s s o th e rs
professionally
____________ rather than socially, so they
(to be continued)
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Text Study—Summary
start talking business immediately since they are
always _________
conscious of time. Americans work hard at
saving time by producing a steady flow of labor_______
saving devices. They may have meetings using
equipment like television screens and telephones
in person . Solving a problem or doing
rather than ________
with speed is taken as a sign
a job successfully __________
skillfulness The more important the job, the
of _________.
pour into it.
more time and effort Americans will _________
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1
Text Study—Reproduction
IV. Reproduction
Work in pairs and make a dialogue on the
topic “How do Americans treat time?”. Use
as many words & phrases learnt in Section
A as possible.
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2
Idea Sharing
Tips:
•
•
•
•
Americans believe …
Americans have an acute sense of …
Americans are always …
Americans treat time as …
•
•
•
•
It’s taken as a sign of …
to … quickly, rush,
hurry to, restlessly,
race through, under pressure, anxious, …
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1
 Active Expressions
 Focus Study
2
Notes to the Text—Active Expressions
1
I. Active Expressions
In English, you may find some expressions
formed by very common words, but they
are active and powerful.
e.g.
• What’s on at the cinema tonight?
• 今晚电影院上演什么?
• What’s he up to? 他忙什么呢?
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1
Notes to the Text—Active Expressions
Find out the active expressions:
1. We are slaves to nothing but the clock. (L5)
2. They will miss the ritual interaction that goes
with a welcoming cup of tea or coffee …(L23)
3. To us … has little or no relation to the
significance of the matter at hand.(L38)
4. In America, too, a final agreement will normally
be signed in person. (L39)
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Notes to the Text—Active Expressions
Active Expressions
1. nothing but + n. / pron. / to do… … … 只… …
2. go with sth. 伴随… …
3. at hand 在附近… …临近的… …
4. in person 亲自,亲身
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2
Notes to the Text—Active Expressions
Translation
1. 他成天什么也不干,只知道睡觉。
2. 幸福未必伴随金钱而来。
3. 他写东西时,手边总放着一本字典。
4. 在中国,要开银行账户,需本人亲自去
银行办理。
Tips
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Notes to the Text—Active Expressions
1. There he did nothing but sleep all day long.
2. Happiness doesn't necessarily go with money.
3. When he writes, he always keep a dictionary
at hand .
4. If one wants to open a bank account in China,
he must go to the bank in person.
More Practice
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1
Notes to the Text—Active Expressions
Translation
1. 她瘦得只剩下皮包骨了。
2. 健康欠佳与贫穷常常如影相随。
3. 圣诞节就要到了,你有什么节目吗?
4. 合同必须亲自去那签,不能邮寄的。
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Notes to the Text—Active Expressions
1. She's nothing but skin and bones!
2. Ill health often goes with poverty.
3. The Christmas Day is almost at hand, have
you got any idea for it?
4. You’ve to go sign for a contract in person,
they can’t just mail it.
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Notes to the Text—Focus Study
1
II. Focus Study
1. Once the sands have run out of a person’s
hourglass, they cannot be replaced.
Once … ,
一旦 …... 便……
Practice
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Notes to the Text—Focus Study
Translation
• 她一到我们就开始。
• 一旦染上坏习惯,想改掉就难了。
• Once she arrives, we can start.
• Once you get into a bad habit, you'll find it hard
to get out of it.
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Notes to the Text—Focus Study
2. … which though pleasant, take longer —
especially given our traffic-filled streets.
given + n./ that clause ,
如果有……, 假如;考虑到……
Practice
2
1
Notes to the Text—Focus Study
Translation
• 考虑到他们缺乏经验,他们算做得很出色了。
• 如果照样再给他治疗一次,他肯定会痊愈。
• Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good
job.
• Given the same treatment again, he is sure to
get well.
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Notes to the Text—Focus Study
1
3. … … the telephone service is superb here,
whereas the postal service is less efficient.
whereas … ,
……却;而……
paragraph
Note:
“whereas” is used to show the contrast.
Practice
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Notes to the Text—Focus Study
Translation
• 有些人喜欢肥肉,而有些人却不喜欢。
• 为什么有的癌症可用化学疗法治愈,
而有的癌症却一点都不受药物影响?
• Some people like fatty meat, whereas others
hate it.
• Why are some cancers cured by chemotherapy
alone, whereas others are unaffected by drugs?
 Word Using
 Matching Game
 Chinese to English
2
Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
I. Word Using
1. fall behind sb./sth.
① become bit by bit further behind
Translation
他在英语方面一直落后于同组同学。
Key
He’s been falling behind his group members
in English.
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Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
1. fall behind sb./sth.
② fail to produce sth. at the proper time
Translation
我工作拖下来了,我得想办法赶上。
Key
I’m falling behind with my work; I must
try to catch up.
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Words and Expressions—Word Using
2. result in
cause, have as a result, lead to
Translation
Acting before thinking always results in failing.
Key
做事不先考虑总是会失败的。
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Words and Expressions—Word Using
3. budget vt.
① plan the spending of …
Translation
• 学校编列了一百万美元建新图书馆的预算。
• She is extremely busy, so she has to budget
her time carefully.
Key
• The school budgeted one million dollars for
a new library.
• 她忙极了,所以必须好好安排时间。
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Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
3. budget for vi.
② save or spend money for …
Translation
小两口为下一年定预算。
Key
The young couple budgeted for the
coming year.
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Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
3. budget for n.
③ a plan to show how much a person
will be able to spend
Translation
量入为出是很重要的。
Key
It is essential to balance one's budget.
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Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
3. budget for adj.
④ inexpensive, cheap
Translation
他以低廉的价钱买下这所房子。
Key
He bought the house at a budget price.
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1
Words and Expressions—Word Using
4. account for
① give a satisfactory explanation for …
Translation
珍妮不得不向父亲说明每一个便士是怎么花的。
Key
Jenny had to account to her father for every
penny she spent.
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1
Words and Expressions—Word Using
4. account for
② be a proportion of sth.
Translation
Girls account for half of the class.
Key
女生占了我们班一半人数。
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Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
5. replace vt.
① put sth. back in its place
Translation
她将听筒放了回去。
Key
She replaced the receiver.
2
Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
5. replace A with B
② take the place of
Translation
• 电灯已经取代了蜡烛。
• 刹车需要更换。
Key
• Human beings have replaced candles with
electric lights .
• The brakes have to be replaced.
2
Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
6. count vi.
If sth. counts, it’s important or valuable;
Translation
• 考试前,每一秒钟都很重要。
• 就运动而言,重要的不是赢,而是参与。
Key
• Every minute counts before the exam.
• In sport what really counts is not the winning
but the playing.
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1
Words and Expressions—Word Using
7. convention n.
customary practice 习俗,惯例
Use It
• What’s the convention for men to wear on
formal occasions?
• What’s the convention for Chinese wedding?
Tips
• It’s the convention for men to wear suits on
formal occasions.
• It’s the convention for … …to … …
2
Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
8. assess vt.
judge or decide the amount, value, quality or
importance of…
Translation
• 现在来评价新法规的效果为时尚早。
• 事故后警察确定了损害赔偿金额。
Key
• It is too early to assess the effects of the
new legislation.
• The police assessed damage after the accident.
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1
Words and Expressions—Word Using
9. much less
still less, let alone and even less likely
Translation
He can hardly afford beer, much less
champagne.
Keys
他连啤酒都喝不起,更不用说香槟了。
更别提
2
Words and Expressions—Word Using
1
10. be worthy of
deserving 值得
Use It
What is worthy of your working hard?
Reference
… is worthy of our working hard.
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Words and Expressions—Matching Game
II. Matching Game
__
c superb
__
f budget
__
d acute
e skillful
__
__
b restlessly
a conduct
__
a. carry out
b. impatiently
c. excellent, outstanding
d. fine, sharp
e. having or showing ability to
do sth. well
f. plan the spending of
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Words and Expressions—C to E
1
III. Chinese to English
停滞不前
消磨时间
要价
承受压力
生活节奏
开场白/寒暄
礼节性交往
邮政服务
金钱的奴隶
直接接触
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
stand still
kill time
charge (money) for sth.
be under pressure
pace of life
opening exchanges
ritual interaction
postal service
slave to money
personal contacts
 Group Work
2
Idea Sharing
1
Group Work
American’s idea on time is quite different
from that of the Chinese. Discuss with
your group members, then make a report
on the differences between the two ideas.
2
Idea Sharing
1
Tips
• Americans … while Chinese …
• Americans are always … while Chinese …
• Americans treat time as … while Chinese
regards time as …
 Structure Writing
 Practical Writing
2
1
Writing—Structure Writing
I. Structure Writing
A General Statement Supported
by Specific Details & Reasons
Normally, a writer presents his statement
at the beginning of a paragraph, and
supports it with specific details, then he’ll
briefly tell readers the reason(s).
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1
Writing—Structure Writing
Sample Writing
A general point : Computers will play an
increasingly important role in our daily life.
Specific details:
1. Computers measure brain activity.
2. Computers evaluate and treat
sickness.
3. Computers in car show us routes,
take money from our bank.
4. Home computers take care of
regular duties at home.
The reason:
Computers
are working
efficiently.
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1
Writing—Structure Writing
Tips for writing effective sentences:
• Decide the topic.
• Write the topic sentence .
• Turn the topic sentence into HOW &
WHY question.
• Before writing, outline details & reasons
of the questions.
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1
Writing—Structure Writing
Sample
Computers will play an increasingly important
role in our daily life. Computers could measure
brain activity to determine the quality of our
work. Doctors will use computers to evaluate
and identify motor problems, figure out repair
costs and locate repair shops. Home computers
will take care of regular duties at home, help
with homework and order food. This is because
computers can work more efficiently for us.
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1
Writing—Structure Writing
Your Task
Write a composition about 60 words with
the given topic. Use the writing skill we just
discussed in this unit.
Topic
Protection of the environment has
become a major concern of society
Tips
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1
Writing—Structure Writing
Tips
Specific details:
• teachers & pupils, specific meeting, discuss
the protection of environment
• city planners, environment problems,
take … into consideration
• factories, reduce pollution, at a high cost
The reason:
• bad air & water pollution affect everyone,
• cities to survive, businesses to make a profit
For your reference
2
1
Writing—Structure Writing
(For reference)
Protection of the environment has become a major concern
of society. In junior schools, teachers and pupils have
specific meetings to discuss the questions of environment.
City planners will take environmental problems into serious
consideration. Factories will take every possible measure to
reduce pollution even at a very high cost. This is because
people realize bad air and water pollution affect everyone,
making it difficult for cities to survive and for businesses to
make a profit.
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1
Writing—Practical Writing
II. Practical Writing
1. Thank-you Letters
Letters of thanks are one of the most
enjoyable letters people write and they are
appreciated and expected in many instances
in western culture. This is not the case in
Chinese culture. In China, people prefer
expressing their appreciation in person.
2
1
Writing—Practical Writing
In western culture, however, even if you have
expressed your thanks in person, a letter of
thanks must still be written. Every gift or favor,
every courtesy or kindness, deserves to be
acknowledged with genuine thanks and
appreciation. Remember, a letter of thanks
doesn’t have to be long but it must be sincere
and enthusiastic.
2
Writing—Practical Writing
1
2. Sample
Thanks for One’s Hospitality
Dear Linda,
My visit with you last weekend was a real
pleasure. Thank you for your hospitality. I
enjoyed every moment.
Yours sincerely,
Joan
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Writing—Practical Writing
1
3. Sample
Thanks for a Gift
Dear Lynn,
I just love the vase you sent me! It is so delicate, yet so
gorgeous. It is one of the nicest birthday presents I have
ever received.
I will place the vase on our dining table and put the most
beautiful flowers in it. You really should come and see for
yourself how lovely the vase looks in our dining room.
With love, and a special hug and kiss.
Helen
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Writing—Practical Writing
1
4. Your Task
Write a note to thank someone for
the gift given. In your letter you will
1) express thanks for the gift given;
2) state clearly how much you like it.
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1
To Section B
The End of Section A
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