Pronouns Pronouns • A word used to take the place of a noun (or group of words acting as a noun) – Ex. Michelle went to the observatory. She thought it was the clearest night so far. • Antecedent is the noun which a pronoun stands for – Ex. After their party, the astronomers went to a party. Personal Pronouns • Used to refer to: – The person speaking – The person spoken to – The person, place, or things spoken about Singular Plural First Person I, me, my, mine We, us, our, ours Second Person You, your, yours You, your, yours Third Person He, she, it, him, her, his, her, hers, its They, them, their, theirs Personal Pronouns (cont.) • The antecedent of a personal pronoun may or may not be directly stated, but rather is implied. – We read about the origin of the universe. – You must submit your paper soon. – The technicians ate their lunch at noon. Demonstrative Pronouns • Direct attention to specific people, places or things Singular Plural This, that These, those – May be located before OR after their antecedent • Before: That is a newly discovered galaxy. • After: A star to steer by – this was all I had. Interrogative Pronouns • Used to begin a question – The antecedent for an interrogative pronoun may not always be known. What, which, who, whom, whose • Direct Question: What fell from the sky? • Indirect Question: He had two problems. I asked which needed to be solved first. Indefinite Pronouns • Refer to people, places, or things, often without specifying which ones – No specific antecedent: Nobody was required to clean up, but many offered to assist. – Specific antecedent: I bought new book covers, but none were the right size. Singular Indefinite Pronouns • • • • • • • Another much anybody Neither anyone nobody Anythingno one each Nothing either one Everybody other everyone Somebody everything someone Little something Plural Indefinite Pronouns • Both • Others few several many Singular or Plural Indefinite • All • Most any none more some Reflexive Pronouns • Used to add information to a sentence by pointing back to a noun or pronoun near the beginning of the sentence – Ex. Cosmologists ready themselves for discovery Intensive Pronouns • Used simply to add emphasis to a noun or pronoun – Ex. You yourself agreed with the theory. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Singular Plural First Person Myself ourselves Second Person Yourself yourselves Third Person Himself, herself, itself themselves Verbs • A word that expresses time while showing an action, a condition, or the fact that something exists • (It’s what you do!!) Action verbs • Verb that tells what action someone or something is performing – Visible – Jeremy ate the whole pizza. – Mental – Elena wondered about her future. Linking verbs • Connects its subject with a word generally found near the end of the sentence and identifies, renames, or describes the subject – Augustus was emperor • The verb be is the most common linking verb Forms of “be” Am Are Is Was were Am being Are being Is being Was being Were being Can be Could be May be Might be Must be Shall be Should be Will be Would be Have been Has been Had been Could have been May have been Might have been Shall have been Should have been Will have been Would have been Other Linking Verbs • Appear, come, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, state, taste, turn – The leader looked determined. • To determine whether these are action or linking, insert am, are, or is in its place – Linking: Caesar looks busy. (Caesar is busy.) – Action: Enemies looked for an opportunity. Transitive Verbs • Action verb that directs action toward someone or something in the same sentence. – The host interviewed Sue. • Interviewed whom? Sue – The word that receives that action of a transitive verb is the object of the verb Intransitive Verbs • Action verb that does not direct action toward someone or something named in the same sentence. – She smiled when she won. • Smiled what? No answer. Linking Verbs • A verb that connects its subject with a word at or near the end of the sentence – Ex: Hudson’s ship was the Half Moon. Adjectives • A word used to describe a noun or pronoun • Give a noun or pronoun a more specific meaning • Answers one of the following questions: – What kind? – Which one? – How many? – How much? Nouns used as Adjectives • Answers the question What kind? or Which one? about a noun that follows it • Nouns Nouns Used as Adjectives Automobile automobile mechanic Consumer consumer reporter Proper Adjectives • An adjective formed from a proper noun Proper Noun Hawaii Athens Proper Adjective Hawaiian pineapples Athenian temple Compound Adjectives • An adjective that is made up of more than one word Hyphenated Upside-down cake Full-scale rebellion Combined upright piano keynote speaker Pronouns Used as Adjectives • A pronoun is used as an adjective if it describes a noun Possessive Pronouns or Adjectives My, your, his, her, its, our, their The bride threw her bouquet. Demonstrative Adjectives This, that, these, those This lettuce and these dandelions are composite flowers. Interrogative Adjectives Which, what, whose Which orchard do you own? Indefinite Adjectives Another, either, little, much, neither, one, both, few, many, several, all, any, more, most, other, some Each rose had thorns. We appreciate any donations. Verb Forms as Adjective • Verb forms used as adjectives usually end in – ing or –ed and are called participles – Ex. I pruned the wilting flowers. • Nouns, pronouns, and verb forms function as adjectives ONLY when they modify other nouns or pronouns Regular Function Noun As an Adjective The deck of the boat tilted. I sat in the deck chair. Pronoun This was an idyllic life. This life was idyllic. Verb I arranged the flowers. The arranged flowers were admired. End Marks • Periods – The sky is clear today. • Question Marks – Is it sunny outside? • Exclamation Marks – How clear the sky is! – Ouch! That hurt! Other Uses of End Marks • Periods – Mr. L. A. Ranson, Ph.D. – I. Causes of revolt • A. Pay inequities • Question Marks – The group raised $25.80 (?). – On January 21 (?) the group will have its first meeting. Commas Separating Basic Elements Commas w/Independent Clauses • Use a comma before the conjunction (and, or, but, etc) to separate 2 independent clauses in a compound sentence. – Independent clause – part of a sentence that can stand alone as its own sentence – Compound sentence – a sentence that is made of two sentences joined by a conjunction • Ex. We worked most of the day, but we didn’t finish the room. • Ex. Not only were we late for the party, but most of the food was gone also. Commas w/Items in a Series • Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series • Remember to put a comma before the “and” – Mom bought candy, milk, and cookies for the party. Commas w/Adjectives • Use commas to separate adjectives of equal rank but not adjectives that must stay in a specific order – Eager, devoted fans waited outside the star’s dressing room. – Many eager fans waited outside the star’s dressing room. More Commas • Use a comma after an introductory word or phrase – Introductory word – No, you can’t have an A. – Introductory phrase – After he spoke, the president left the stage. • Use commas to set off nonessential expressions – Names of people being address – If you don’t stop, Jack, I’m going to hurt you. – Certain adverbs – I wanted, however, to go elsewhere. – Common expressions – Girls, of course, are smarter than boys. – Contrasting expressions – Boys are stronger, not girls. Commas (last time, swear) • When a date, geographical name, or an address is made up of two or more parts, use a comma after each item except in the case of a month followed by a day. • Use commas to set off a title following a name. • Use a comma in the following: – – – – – – – – Date: On April 18, 1775… Geographical Name: Atlanta, GA was… Address: My address is 408 Wash St., M’ville, VA Name w/title: Joe Schmo, Ph.D. Salutation/closing: Dear Ann, / Your friend, Numbers: 1,234 Elliptical sentence: Joe excels at golf, Dan, at tennis Direct Quote: “You know,” she said, “I hate stupid people.” – To prevent confusion: Riding with Tim, Jill jumped in the car. Nouns • Names a person, place, or thing • Concrete noun – things that can be touched, seen, or recognized through any of the 5 senses • Abstract nouns – things that cannot be recognized through the 5 senses…they are ideas • Compound nouns – noun that’s made up of more than one word • Collective nouns – name groups of people or things • Common nouns – name any one of a class of people, places, or things (very generic/vague) • Proper nouns – name a specific person, place, or thing and begins with a capital letter Semicolons ; • Use a semicolon to join: – Independent clauses not joined by a conjunction (and, but, or, etc.) • The chief sounded the alarm; the firefighters raced to their stations – Separated by a conjunctive adverb (consequently, therefore, however, etc.) • Helen has a 4.0 average; consequently, she has a good chance for a scholarship – Separated by a transitional expression (in addition, at the same time, etc) • In the first place, Stan loves all sports; in addition, he has excellent coordination – With items that already have commas • The judges will include Mrs. Haley, the drama coach; Mr. Dakin, the choral director; and Mr. Odem, the local drama critic. • Our summer house, a ramshackle bungalow, is far from elegant; but the views from the porch are spectacular. Colons : • Use a colon: – To introduce a list of items after an independent clause • The arrangement consisted entirely of spring flowers: irises, daffodils, and tulips. – To introduce a quotation that is formal, lengthy, or lacks a “he said/she said” expression • Ellen waved goodbye: “Have a good trip.” – To introduce a sentence that summarizes or explains the sentence before it • The paper reported the election results: All three present school board members were unseated. – To introduce a formal noun (appositive) that follows an independent clause • The class play will be an American classic: Our Town. Use Colons in these situations: • • • • • Numbers giving time 8:17 a.m. Periodical references Nat Geo XI: 421 Biblical references I Cor. 13:1-4 Subtitles Pierre: A Tale Greetings in business letters » Dear Mr. Anderson: • Labels telling important ideas » Caution: Slippery when wet Forms of “be” (a verb) • Amis • Has • Being are have been was had be were • Using these words makes your paper passive voice • You want to write in active voice, so avoid using these words Subject-Verb Agreement • Number refers to the two forms of a word: singular and plural • Singular words indicate one • Plural words indicate more than one • Singular subjects must have a singular verb – A vase of flowers is on the table. • Plural subjects must have plural verbs – The flowers in the vase are roses. • Anything that comes between the subject and verb does NOT affect subject-verb agreement Part of speech Nouns Pronoun Verbs Singular Plural Sing/plur Shop, Shops, freshman freshmen I, he, she, it We, they Deer, fish Explore, does (I, you, we, they) explore (I, you, we, they) have, do You Subject-Verb Agreement pt. 2 • A singular subject after “or” (or “nor”) takes a singular verb • A plural subject after “or” (or “nor”) takes a plural verb • Compound subjects joined by “and” take a plural verb unless they are thought of as one thing or it includes “each” or “every” Agreement with Compound Subjects • Joined by or or nor – Jason, Jen, or Pat does the dishes every night. – Neither the owners nor the realtor has keys • Joined by and – Kim and Sally are coming for dinner. – Every guest and family member is sure to enjoy it. “Quotation Marks” • Direct quote = a person’s exact words or thoughts – Requires quotation marks – “Do you think it will rain?” asked Harry. • Indirect quote = the general meaning of what a person said or thought – Does NOT require quotation marks – Harry wondered whether or not it would rain. • In direct quotations use: – A comma or colon after an introductory expression – A comma, question mark, or exclamation mark after the quote • Harry asked, “Do you think it will rain?” – A comma to surround interrupting expressions in a direct quote – A comma, question mark, or exclamation mark at the end of a quote, but before the interrupting part and a period at the end • “I certainly hope,” Cheryl said, “that we win.” Other punctuation with quotes • Always place a comma or period inside the final quotation marks • Semicolons and colons go outside the final quotation mark • Use the meaning of the sentence to determine where to put question and exclamation marks Special Uses • Use single quotation marks for a quote within a quote – Ann answered, “The soliloquy ‘To be or not to be,’ and is found in Act II of Hamlet.” • When writing dialogue, start a new paragraph every time the speaker changes • For quotes longer than 1 paragraph, put quotes at the beginning and only at the end of the final paragraph Adverbs • Word that modifies (describes) a verb, an adjective, or another adverb – When it describes a verb, it answers the following questions: • • • • Where? When? In what way? To what extent? – When it describes an adjective or another adverb, it only answers: To what extent? Adverbs Modifying (Describing) Where? The plant grew upward. The bushes were planted there. In what way? He officially announced it. She was graciously helping. Verbs When? She never raked the leaves. Later, we toured the greenhouse. To what extent? The bees were still buzzing. He always did it right. Adverbs Modifying Adjectives Adverbs Modifying Adverbs To what extent? The solution was quite logical. To what extent? He worked very competently. It was an extremely overgrown yard. I am not completely finished. Subjects and Predicates • A sentence is a group of words with two main parts: a complete subject and a complete predicate – Complete subject contains the noun, pronoun, or group of words acting as a noun, plus their modifiers (descriptions). Tells you who or what the sentence is about. – Complete predicate is the verb or verb phrase and any modifiers (adverbs). Tells you what the complete subject does or is. Complete Subject Complete Predicate Critters creep. A bell-clanging streetcar moved through the intersection. Wood or cellulose is a delicious meal for a termite. The candidate’s pragmatic approach to the fiscal problem impressed the voters attending the rally last Thursday. In some sentences, a portion of the predicate may precede the complete subject. complete complete subject predicate At midnight, the multitude of spiders spun webs. Fragments • A fragment is a group of words that does not express a complete thought. • You correct fragments by adding the missing parts. Fragments Complete Sentences People allergic to bug bites. (complete predicate missing) People allergic to bug bites should avoid the outdoors. (complete predicate added) Thrive in the rain forests. (complete subject missing) Tarantulas thrive in rain forests. (complete subject added) From the barn. (complete subject and predicate missing) Flies from the barn made their way into the house. (complete predicate and rest of complete subject added) **Verbals/Verbal Phrases • Verbal – a word the comes from a verb but used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb – Like verbs, verbals can be described (modified) by adverbs and adverb phrases or have complements (words that complete the predicate). – Verbals with modifiers or a complement are called verbal phrases. Participles/Participial Phrases • Many adjectives are actually verbals known as participles. • A participle is a form of a verb that can act as an adjective. • Participles come before or after the word they describe, answering Which one? or What kind? • Participles come in three forms: present, past, and perfect Kind of Participle Forms Examples Present Participle Ends in –ing The burning embers fell to the ground. The water shone with glimmering phosphorescence. Past Participle Usually ends in –ed; sometimes –t, -en, or another irregular ending The scorched forest eventually regenerated itself. The exhausted firefighter didn’t hear the alarm. Perfect Participle Includes having or having been before a past participle Having tested the smoke detector, I replaced its cover. Having been asked, he gave his opinion. Participial Phrases • A participle described (modified) by an adverb or adverb phrase or accompanied by a complement. • The entire phrase acts as an adjective. – With an adverb: Burning brightly, the fire lit up the room. – With an adverb phrase: The bone, broken in two places, healed slowly. – With a direct object: Holding the high-pressure hose, I struggle to stand still. • Participial phrases can be used to combine information in two sentences into sentence. – Two sentences: The fire marshal’s speech, expressed her opinion about several important issue. It convinced many people to vote for her. – Combined sentences: The fire marsh’s speech, convincing many people to vote for her, expressed her opinions about several important issues. – The fire marshal’s speech, expressing her opinions about several important issues, convinced many people to vote for her. Capitalization for First Words • Capitalize the first word of a sentence. – The mountain was tall and forbidding. • Capitalize the first word in interjections and incomplete questions. – Oh! Marvelous! Why not? When? • Capitalize the first word in a quotation if the quotation is a complete sentence. – “The water rushes to the edge of the falls,” he said. “It could crush a person.” – After seeing it, Roosevelt said that “no man can improve it.” • Capitalize the first word after a colon if the word begins a complete sentence. – Livingstone set out to attempt something new: He led a trip to discover the source of the Nile. (complete sentence) – Before this, he explored much of Africa: the Kalahari, the Zambezi River, Lake Ngami, etc. (list of words/phrases) • Capitalize the first word in each line of traditional poetry. – Tyger! Tyger! burning bright, – In the forests of the night… • Capitalize the first word after a colon in a formal resolution that states subject of debates, legislative decisions, and acts. – Resolved: That the Senior Class hold an exhibit of its work on natural wonders. Capitalization for Proper Nouns • Capitalize all proper nouns. – Henry, Sir Edmund Hillary, the White House, H.M.S. Beagle • Capitalize each part of a person’s full name. – Francis Drake T. S. Eliot – McCarthy O’Donovan – Lassie, a dog Velvet, a horse St. James • Capitalize geographical and place names – Hillside Road – British Colombia – the Southwest – the Oval Office Dallas the Alps Saturn Room 14 Putnam County Fiji Islands the Alamo Laboratory C • Capitalize the names of specific events and periods of time Special Events and Times Historical Events the Louisiana Purchase, the Russian Revolution Historic and Geographic Periods the Renaissance, the Ice Age Documents the Magna Carta, the Declaration of Independence Days and Months Tuesday, July 20, the third week in April Holidays and Religious Days Easter, Hanukah, Memorial Day Special Events the World’s Fair, the Super Bowl • Capitalize abbreviations of titles before and after names. – Mr. Green Mrs. Paige Art Romano, Ph.D. • Capitalize the names of various organizations, government bodies, political parties, races, nationalities, languages, and religious references. Various Groups Clubs New York Athletic Club, MV Chess Club Organizations the Salvation Army, American Medical Association Institutions National Museum of Art, the Boston Symphony Schools Stanford University, Genoa Area High School Businesses Allied Chemical Corporation, Prentice-Hall Inc. Government Bodies the Senate, Army of the Potomac Political Parties Republican party, Liberal party, the Democrats Nationalities American, Mexican, Chinese, German Languages English, Spanish, Swahili Religious References Christianity: God, the Lord, the Bible Islam: Allah, the Koran, Muslims • Capitalize names of awards; names of specific types of air, sea, space, and land craft; and brand names. – Awards: Nobel Peace Prize, the Pulitzer Prize – Specific Crafts: Boeing 747, Apollo V, Ford Mustang – Brand Names: John’s Elixer, Aunt Molly’s Crackers Capitalization for Proper Adjectives • Capitalize most proper adjectives. – Proper adjectives from proper nouns: American Elizabethan, biblical – Proper nouns as adjectives: a Chicago accent, a March day • Do not capitalize certain frequently used proper adjectives. – bowie knife, china cabinet, french toast • Capitalize brand names used as an adjective, but do NOT capitalize the common noun it modifies. – Everlasting refrigerator, Big Guy jeans • Do not capitalize a common noun used with two proper adjectives. Compound Proper Noun Two Proper Adjectives with Common Noun Volstead Act Main Street Mississippi River Volstead and Payne acts Main, Welch, and West streets Mississippi and Missouri rivers • Do NOT capitalize prefixes attached to proper adjectives unless the prefix refers to a nationality. – pro-English Franco-Prussian War • In a hyphenated adjective, capitalize only the proper adjective. – Swedish-speaking immigrant Faulty Parallelism • Parallelism involved presenting equal ideas in words, phrases, or clauses of similar types. – Parallel grammatical structures may be: • Two or more words of the same part of speech • Two or more phrases of the same type • Two or more clauses of the same type (phrase with a subject and verb) • Two or more sentences of the same type • Parallel words – The surfer looked strong, fit, and agile. • Parallel phrases – The greatest feeling I know is to ride a giant wave flawlessly and to have all my friends watching me enviously. • Parallel clauses – The surfboard that you recommended and that my brother wants is on sale. • Parallel sentences – It couldn’t be, of course. It could never, never be. – Dorothy Parker (Don’t Write This) • It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair…. – from A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Correcting Faulty Parallelism • Faulty parallelism occurs when a writer uses unequal grammatical structures to express related ideas. • Correct a sentence containing faulty parallelism by rewriting it so that each parallel idea is expressed in the same grammatical structure. Correcting Faulty Parallelism in a series Nonparallel Structures Corrected sentence (gerund) (gerund) (noun) Planning, drafting, and revision are three steps in the writing process (gerund) (gerund) (gerund) Planning, drafting, and revising are three steps in the writing process. (infinitive phrase) I could not wait to try my new surfboard, (infinitive phrase) (participle phrase) to catch some waves, and visiting the (infinitive phrase) I could not wait to try my new surfboard, (infinitive phrase) (infinitive phrase) to catch some waves, and to visit the beach. beach. (noun clause) Some people feel that surfing is not a (independent clause) sport, but it requires athleticism. (noun clause) Some experts feel that surfing is not a (noun clause) sport, but that it requires athleticism. Correcting Faulty Parallelism in Comparisons Nonparallel Structures Correlated Sentences (N) Most people prefer corn to eating (gerund phrase) Brussels sprouts. (N) (N) Most people prefer corn to Brussels (prep phrase) I left my job at 7:00 P.M. rather than (part phrase) stopping work at 5:00 P.M. (prep phrase) I left my job at 7:00 P.M. rather than at (prep phrase) the usual 5:00 P.M. (S) (prep phrase) I delight in foggy days as much as sunny (S) (DO) days delight other people. (S) (prep phrase) I delight in foggy days as much as other (S) (prep phrase) people delight in sunny days. sprouts.