Expressing Contrast - BLOG 1r BATXILLERAT

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Expressing Contrast
Although, in spite of, but, however…
Connectors of contrast








Although / though / even though
In spite of / despite
However
But
Nevertheless
Yet
On the contrary
Whereas / while
Connectors of contrast

We use although or though or even though
to connect contrasting ideas.

Used to introduce a dependent clause, which is joined
to form a complex sentence.
Position: use a comma if the SC comes before the MC;
do not use a comma if the SC comes after the MC.
Although the company’s sale increased last year, its net
profit declined.
The company’s net profit declined last year although its
sales increased.

Connectors of contrast
Though/ although/ even though+ clause [subj + verb]
= in spite of/ despite the fact that + clause [subj + verb]
= in spite of/ despite + Noun phrase or V-ing
Examples:
 Even though he is a millionaire, he is very mean.
 In spite of the fact that he is a millionaire, he is
very mean.
 In spite of being a millionaire, he is very mean.
Connectors of contrast

Although I hate computers, my
teacher makes me use them.
 Despite the fact that I hate
computers, my teacher makes me
use them.
 Despite hating computers, my
teacher makes me use them.
Connectors of contrast
Although it was very cold, we went
to the beach.
 In spite of the fact that it was very
cold, we went to the beach.
 In spite of the cold weather, we
went to the beach.

Use only a noun phrase
here
Don’t use a complete sentence
Connectors of contrast
Exercises:
1)
There was a terrible traffic jam. However, he arrived on time
(Although …)
2)
He searched everywhere, but he couldn’t find the ticket
(Although...)
3)
Despite the age of the house, we managed to sell it
(Although…)
4)
Despite the doctor’s advice, he played football last week (Even
though…)
5)
Although he has an English name, he is in fact German
(Despite…)
6)
Although her friends advised her not to do it, she would not
listen (Despite…)
Connectors of contrast
7) Although MN is very famous in Spain, she isn’t
widely known abroad (In spite of…)
8) We lost the match although we were the better team
(Despite…)
9) We all enjoyed the walk, even though it rained
heavily (In spite of…)
10) The dog barked all night, but we still managed to
sleep (Despite…)
11) He is extremely rich, but very mean (In spite of…)
12) Mrs. Jones is 70, but she still goes for a run every
day (In spite of…)
Connectors of contrast
Answer KEY
1) There was a terrible traffic jam. He arrived on time (Although …)
Although there was a terrible traffic jam, he arrived on time.
2) He searched everywhere, but he couldn’t find the ticket (Although...
Although he searched everywhere, he couldn’t find the ticket.
3) Despite the age of the house, we managed to sell it (Although…)
Although it was a very old house, we managed to sell it.
4) Despite the doctor’s advice, he played football last week (Even though…)
He played football last week even though the doctor advised him not to do
it.
5) Although he has an English name, he is in fact German (Despite…)
Despite having an English name/ his English name, he is in fact German.
6) Although her friends advised her not to do it, she would not listen (Despite…)
Despite her friends’ advice not to do it, she would not listen.
Connectors of contrast
7) Although MN is very famous in Spain, she isn’t widely known abroad (In
spite of…)
In spite of MN being very famous in Spain, she isn’t widely known
abroad.
In spite of MN’s popularity in Spain, she isn’t widely known
abroad.
8) We lost the match although we were the better team (Despite…)
Despite being the better team, we lost the match.
9) We all enjoyed the walk, even though it rained heavily (In spite of…)
In spite of the heavy rain, we all enjoyed the walk.
10) The dog barked all night, but we still managed to sleep (Despite…)
Despite the dog’s barking all night, we still managed to sleep.
11) He is extremely rich, but very mean (In spite of…)
In spite of being extremely rich/ his big fortune, he’s very mean.
12) Mrs. Jones is 70, but she still goes for a run every day (In spite of…)
In spite of Mrs. Jones being 70, she still goes for a run every day.
Connectors of contrast
BUT (pero, sino)
HOWEVER (sin embargo)
NEVERTHELESS (sin embargo, no obstante)
YET (aún así)
Examples:
Katty couldnt cash her paycheck ...
Katty no pudo cobrar el cheque de su sueldo ...
However, she managed to buy a new TV set.
Sin embargo consiguió comprarse un televisor nuevo.
but she managed to buy a new TV set.
Pero consiguió comprarse un televisor nuevo.
nevertheless, she managed to buy a new TV set.
No obstante consiguió comprarse un televisor nuevo.
yet she managed to buy a new TV set.
Aun así consiguió comprarse un televisor nuevo.
Connectors of contrast
BUT (pero)
o He spoke clearly, but I didn't understand him.
Habló claramente pero no lo entendí
o She saw me, but she didn't recognize me.
Ella me vió pero no me reconoció.
o I want to study art, but my parents want me to
become an engineer.
o I have studied the textbook, but I am still
confused. (“I have studied” and “I am”)
Connectors of contrast
HOWEVER ( sin embargo)
 They were not having fun; however they
stayed until the party was over.
Ellos no se estaban divirtiendo; sin embargo
se quedaron hasta que la fiesta terminó.
 He doesn't study much; however he gets
good grades at school.
El no estudia mucho; sin embargo obtiene
buenas notas en la escuela.
Always use “However,” at the start of a
sentence
Wrong:
 I don’t like to use
computers, however I have
to use them for English
class.
Correct: I don’t like to use
computers. However, I
have to use them for
English class.
Wrong!
Don’t
use
however
after a
comma.
Two simple sentences, “however” as adverb in
one
I have studied the textbook; however, I am
still confused.
I am confused. I have, however, studied the
textbook.
 “however” is an adverb
 two simple sentences
 the adverb is interrupting material that
requires a pair of commas
Connectors of contrast
NEVERTHELESS ( sin
embargo)
It was very stormy;
nevertheless we went
fishing.
Estaba muy tormentoso; sin
embargo fuimos de pesca.
Don’t use
nevertheles
s after a
comma.
Connectors of contrast
YET - sin embargo
o
o
He wanted to reply to that accusation, yet he
didn't.
El quería contestar a esa acusación; sin embargo
no lo hizo.
Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age 12,
yet he became a famous inventor.
Thomas Edison abandonó los estudios a la edad de
12 años, sin embargo, se convirtió en un famoso
inventor.
Connectors of contrast
ON THE CONTRARY - por el contrario
 The boy is not dumb; on the contrary, he's
very smart for his age.
El muchacho no es tonto; al contrario él es
muy inteligente para su edad.
 Condors are solitary birds. On the contrary,
seagulls live in flocks.
Los cóndores son aves solitarias. Por el
contrario, las gaviotas viven en bandadas.
Connectors of contrast
WHEREAS/ WHILE = but on the other hand

While and whereas are used to show direct
contrast: "this" is exactly opposite of "that." While
and whereas may be used with idea of either clause
with no difference in meaning.
Whereas mostly occurs in formal written English.
Note: A comma is usually used even though the
adverb clause comes second
EXAMPLES:
 I like to go swimming, whereas Sheila likes to sail.
Connectors of contrast

One arrived promptly, whereas the others hung
back.

He is quite shy, whereas his sister is lively and
talkative.

Mary is rich, whereas/ while John is poor.

John is poor, whereas/ while Mary is rich.
Connectors of contrast
(A) CONCESSION
Although
Though
Even though
(B) ADVERSATIVE
However
But
Nevertheless
Yet
On the contrary
Whereas / while
Connectors of contrast
REPHRASING
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
A lot of people prefer a PDA to a desk computer although
the screen size is very small.
Even though...
She had very good qualifications.However, she wasn't
offered very high wages Despite...
Internet is very popular. Nevertheless, a lot of people do not
know how to use it. Even though...
Bob had a considerable amount of experience but the job
went to a junior colleague.
Although...
Bob did his best in the final examination although he was
suffering from a heavy cold.
Despite...
Connectors of contrast
6) Her writing style is elegant but her power of description is limited.
While...
7) He was much criticised but he kept on behaving the way he
used to.
Despite...
8) The job market was difficult last summer. Nevertheless, Bill got a
job soon after graduation.
Although...
9) He made a positive impression during the interview, but he
wasn't offered a permanent job.
Even though...
10) Studying on the Internet has a lot of advantages but it may not
always be as effective as face to face study.
In spite...
Connectors of contrast
1) A lot of people prefer a PDA to a desk computer although the screen size is very
small. Even though...

Even though the screen size is very small, a lot of people prefer a PDA to a desk
computer.
2) She had very good qualifications. However, she wasn't offered very high wages
Despite...
Despite having very good qualifications, she wasn't offered very high wages.
3) Internet is very popular. Nevertheless, a lot of people do not know how to use it.
Even though...
Even though internet is very popular, a lot of people do not know how to use it.
4) Bob had a considerable amount of experience but the job went to a junior colleague.
Although...

Although Bob had a considerable amount of experience, the job went to a junior
colleague.
5) Bob did his best in the final examination although he was suffering from a heavy
cold. Despite...

Despite suffering from a heavy cold, Bob did his best in the final examination.
Connectors of contrast
6) Her writing style is elegant but her power of description is limited. While...
Her writing style is elegant while her power of description is limited.
7) He was much criticised but he kept on behaving the way he used to. Despite...
Despite being much criticised, he kept on behaving the way he used to.
8) The job market was difficult last summer. Nevertheless Bill got a job soon after
graduation. Although...
Although the job market was difficult last summer, Bill got a job soon after graduation.
9) He made a positive impression during the interview, but he wasn't offered a
permanent job. Even though...
Even though he made a positive impression during tjhe interview, he wasn't offered a
permanent job.
10) Studying on the Internet has a lot of advantages but it may not always be as effective
as face to face study. In spite...
In spite of its many advantages, studying on the Internet may not always be as
effective as face to face study.
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