Chapter 25

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C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 25
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
1. The subjunctive mood
2. The subjunctive of thematic and athematic
(-μι) verbs
3. Exhortations
4. The deliberative subjunctive
5. Prohibitions
6. γίγνομαι
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
1. The subjunctive mood
2. The subjunctive of thematic and
athematic (-μι) verbs
3. Exhortations
4. The deliberative subjunctive
5. Prohibitions
6. γίγνομαι
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
1. The subjunctive mood
•
•
This chapter introduces a new mood: the
subjunctive.
The distinctive marker of this mood is the
lengthening of the thematic vowel:
–
–
•
εη
οω
The subjunctive is considered primary at all
times, so it always uses primary endings.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Indicative
-ω
-εις
-ει
-ομεν
-ετε
-ουσι(ν)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Subjunctive
-ω
-ῃς
-ῃ
-ωμεν
-ητε
-ωσι(ν)
Active Voice
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Indicative
-ομαι
-ῃ
-εται
-ομεθα
-εσθε
-ονται
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Subjunctive
-ωμαι
-ῃ
-ηται
-ωμεθα
-ησθε
-ωνται
Middle Voice
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Active
λύω
λύῃς
λύῃ
λύωμεν
λύητε
λύωσι(ν)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Middle/Passive
λύωμαι
λύῃ
λύηται
λύωμεθα
λύησθε
λύωνται
Present Tense
stem = λυ
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
1. The subjunctive mood
•
The subjunctive exists in only two tenses, the
present and aorist.
–
–
Both tenses use exactly the same endings.
Remember that only the indicative mood has an
augment, so the aorist subjunctive will have no
augment.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Active
λύσω
λύσῃς
λύσῃ
λύσωμεν
λύσητε
λύσωσι(ν)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Middle
λύσωμαι
λύσῃ
λύσηται
λύσωμεθα
λύσησθε
λύσωνται
Aorist Tense
stem = λυσ
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Passive
λυθῶ
λυθῇς
λυθῇ
λυθῶμεν
λυθῆτε
λυθῶσι
Aorist Tense
stem = λυθ
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
2. The subjunctive of thematic and
athematic (-μι) verbs
•
•
Contract verbs follow the normal rules for
contraction (see page 172).
Because two short vowels tend to contract to η
or ω anyway, many subjunctive forms of
contract verbs are identical to the indicative
forms. This problem affects only the present
tense (since there is no imperfect subjunctive).
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
2. The subjunctive of thematic and
athematic (-μι) verbs
•
•
•
–μι verbs are generally regular in the
subjunctive mood.
δίδωμι “give” τίθημι “put, place, make” and
ἵστημι “stand” always accent their stem vowel
in the subjunctive (e.g., τιθῆτε).
δίδωμι “give” always uses ω, never η, in the
subjunctive (e.g., διδῶτε).
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
Parsing Verbs
•
•
•
•
•
Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
Number: singular, plural
Tense: Present, Imperfect, Future, Aorist
Mood: Indicative, Participle, Infinitive,
Subjunctive, Imperative
Voice: Active, Middle, Passive
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
Frequency of Verb forms
•
•
•
•
•
Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
Number: singular, plural
Tense: Present (47%), Aorist (28%), Imperfect
(13%), Perfect (6%), Future (4%), Pluperfect
(1%), Future Perfect (.1%)
Mood: Indicative (41%), Participle (31%),
Infinitive (13%), Subjunctive (6%), Imperative
(4%), Optative (3%)
Voice: Active, Middle, Passive
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
1. The subjunctive mood
2. The subjunctive of thematic and athematic
(-μι) verbs
3. Exhortations
4. The deliberative subjunctive
5. Prohibitions
6. γίγνομαι
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
3. Exhortations
•
•
The first person plural of the subjunctive
expresses an urge or exhortation. This use is
normally called “hortatory.”
κλέπτωμεν.
–
–
•
Let’s steal (= Let’s be thieves for a living).
The present tense refers to a general action.
κλέψωμεν τὸν κροκόδειλον.
–
–
Let’s steal the crocodile.
The aorist tense refers to a specific situation.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
1. The subjunctive mood
2. The subjunctive of thematic and athematic
(-μι) verbs
3. Exhortations
4. The deliberative subjunctive
5. Prohibitions
6. γίγνομαι
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
4. The deliberative subjunctive
•
•
In a question, the subjunctive considers what is
to happen or what one is to do. This use is
normally called “deliberative.”
κλέψωμεν τὸν κροκόδειλον;
–
So, are we going to steal the crocodile?
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
1. The subjunctive mood
2. The subjunctive of thematic and athematic
(-μι) verbs
3. Exhortations
4. The deliberative subjunctive
5. Prohibitions
6. γίγνομαι
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
5. Prohibitions
•
•
In the negative, the aorist of the subjunctive
serves as a more specific version of the present
imperative:
μὴ κλέπτε.
–
–
•
Don’t steal.
The present imperative refers to a general action.
μὴ κλέψῃς τὸν κροκόδειλον.
–
–
Don’t steal the crocodile.
The aorist subjunctive refers to a specific situation.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
5. Prohibitions
•
•
In the negative, the aorist of the subjunctive
serves as a more specific version of the present
imperative:
μηδεὶς κλεπτέτω.
–
–
•
Let no one steal.
The imperative refers to a general action.
μηδεὶς κλέψῃ τὸν κροκόδειλον.
–
–
Let no one steal the crocodile.
The subjunctive refers to a specific situation.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
1. The subjunctive mood
2. The subjunctive of thematic and athematic
(-μι) verbs
3. Exhortations
4. The deliberative subjunctive
5. Prohibitions
6. γίγνομαι
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
6. γίγνομαι
• γίγνομαι is a deponent verb meaning “become” or
“happen” and often serves as a replacement for εἰμί,
especially in the aorist tense (since εἰμί does not have
an aorist).
• γίγνομαι, γενήσομαι ἐγενόμην γέγονα
γεγένομαι
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
for next class (Monday, March 14, 2011):
• Quiz: Write out the endings of the active and
middle subjunctive (page 171 or slides 5-6).
• Prepare Reading “Aristogoras and His Map”
for class.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ὁ δὲ Ἀριστογόρας, ὁ τῆς Μιλήτου τύραννος, ἐβούλετο
ἐλευθεροῦν τοὺς Ἴωνας ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Περσῶν ἀρχῆς,
ἔπλευσεν οὖν εἰς τὴν Σπάρτην καὶ διελέγετο τῷ Κλεομένι,
τῷ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔχοντι· καὶ ἔφερεν, ὡς οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι
λέγουσι, χαλκοῦν πίνακα, ἐν ᾧ γῆς πάσης περίοδος
ἐγέγραπτο καὶ θάλαττά τε πᾶσα καὶ ποταμοὶ πάντες.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ὁ δὲ Ἀριστογόρας, ὁ τῆς Μιλήτου τύραννος,
ἐβούλετο ἐλευθεροῦν τοὺς Ἴωνας
ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Περσῶν ἀρχῆς,
ἔπλευσεν οὖν εἰς τὴν Σπάρτην
καὶ διελέγετο τῷ Κλεομένι, τῷ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔχοντι·
καὶ ἔφερεν, ὡς οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι λέγουσι, χαλκοῦν πίνακα,
ἐν ᾧ γῆς πάσης περίοδος ἐγέγραπτο
καὶ θάλαττά τε πᾶσα καὶ ποταμοὶ πάντες.
Miletus
Sparta
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
Ὤ Κλεόμενες, ἔφη, μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι δεῦρο ἥκω· ὅτι οἱ τῶν
Ἰώνων παῖδές εἰσι δοῦλοι ἀντ' ἐλευθέρων μέγιστον μὲν
γὰρ ἄλγος ἐστὶν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς, ἔτι δὲ ὑμῖν, οἳ ἀριστεύετε ἐν
τῇ Ἑλλάδι, νῦν οὖν πρὸς θεῶν σώσατε τοὺς Ἴωνας ἐκ
δουλοσύνης ἄνδρας ὁμαίμονας.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
Ὤ Κλεόμενες, ἔφη, μὴ θαυμάσῃς
ὅτι δεῦρο ἥκω·
ὅτι οἱ τῶν Ἰώνων παῖδές εἰσι δοῦλοι ἀντ' ἐλευθέρων
μέγιστον μὲν γὰρ ἄλγος ἐστὶν ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς,
ἔτι δὲ ὑμῖν, οἳ ἀριστεύετε ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι,
νῦν οὖν πρὸς θεῶν σώσατε τοὺς Ἴωνας ἐκ δουλοσύνης
ἄνδρας ὁμαίμονας.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ῥᾴδιον δὲ ὑμῖν ἐστι ταῦτα ποιεῖν· οὔτε γὰρ οἱ βάρβαροι
ἀνδρεῖοί εἰσιν, ὔμεῖς τε ἀριστοί ἐστε τὸν πόλεμον. ἥ τε
μάχη αὐτῶν τοιαύτη ἐστίν, τόξα καὶ αἰχμὴ βραχεῖα·
ἀναξυρίδας δὲ ἔχοντες μάχονται καὶ κυρβασίας ἐπὶ ταῖς
κεφαλαῖς οὕτω ῥᾴδιοι νικηθῆναί εἰσιν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἀγαθὰ
τοῖς τὴν ἤπειρον ἐκείνην οἰκοῦσιν, χρυσός τε καὶ
ἄργυρος, καὶ ὑποζύγιά τε καὶ δοῦλοι· ἃ βουλόμενοι αὐτοὶ
οἷοί τ' ἐστὲ σχεῖν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ῥᾴδιον δὲ ὑμῖν ἐστι ταῦτα ποιεῖν·
οὔτε γὰρ οἱ βάρβαροι ἀνδρεῖοί εἰσιν,
ὔμεῖς τε ἀριστοί ἐστε τὸν πόλεμον.
ἥ τε μάχη αὐτῶν τοιαύτη ἐστίν, τόξα καὶ αἰχμὴ βραχεῖα·
ἀναξυρίδας δὲ ἔχοντες μάχονται
καὶ κυρβασίας ἐπὶ ταῖς κεφαλαῖς
οὕτω ῥᾴδιοι νικηθῆναί εἰσιν.
ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἀγαθὰ τοῖς τὴν ἤπειρον ἐκείνην οἰκοῦσιν,
χρυσός τε καὶ ἄργυρος, καὶ ὑποζύγιά τε καὶ δοῦλοι·
ἃ βουλόμενοι αὐτοὶ οἷοί τ' ἐστὲ σχεῖν.
κυρβασία
τόξα
αἰχμὴ βραχεῖα
ἀναξυρίδες
Greek vase showing
a Greek warrior
fighting a Persian
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ἔλεγε δὲ ταῦτα δεικνὺς τὴν τῆς γῆς περίοδον, ἣν ἔφερε ἐν
τῷ πίνακι γραφεῖσαν· ἐξηγεῖτο δὲ τὰς χώρας πάντων τῶν
βαρβάρων, ἐξηγούμενος τὸν πλοῦτον ἐκάστης, καὶ τὰ
Σοῦσα αὐτά, ἐν οἷς οἱ βασιλέως μεγάλου θησαυροὶ
ἐνῆσαν. Λαβόντες ταύτην τὴν πόλιν, ἔφη, χρήματα
πολλὰ σχήσετε.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ἔλεγε δὲ ταῦτα δεικνὺς τὴν τῆς γῆς περίοδον,
ἣν ἔφερε ἐν τῷ πίνακι γραφεῖσαν·
ἐξηγεῖτο δὲ τὰς χώρας πάντων τῶν βαρβάρων,
ἐξηγούμενος τὸν πλοῦτον ἐκάστης,
καὶ τὰ Σοῦσα αὐτά,
ἐν οἷς οἱ βασιλέως μεγάλου θησαυροὶ ἐνῆσαν.
Λαβόντες ταύτην τὴν πόλιν, ἔφη,
χρήματα πολλὰ σχήσετε.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ἀλλὰ περὶ χώρας οὐ πολλῆς οὐδὲ οὕτω χρησίμης δεῖ ὑμᾶς
μάχας παῦσαι, πρός τε Μεσσηνίους καὶ Ἀργείους, οἷς
οὔτε χρυσός ἐστιν οὔτε ἄργυρος. Ἀριστογόρας μὲν ταῦτα
ἔλεξε, Κλεομένης δὲ εἶπε τάδε· Ὦ ξένε Μιλήσιε, τριῶν
ἡμερῶν ἀποκρινοῦμαι. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ κυρία ἡμέρα ἐγένετο,
ὁ Κλεομένης ἠρώτησε, Πόσων ἡμερῶν ἐστιν ἡ ὁδὸς ἀπὸ
τῆς τῶν Ἰώνων θαλάττης παρὰ βασιλέα;
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ἀλλὰ περὶ χώρας οὐ πολλῆς οὐδὲ οὕτω χρησίμης
δεῖ ὑμᾶς μάχας παῦσαι,
πρός τε Μεσσηνίους καὶ Ἀργείους,
οἷς οὔτε χρυσός ἐστιν οὔτε ἄργυρος.
Ἀριστογόρας μὲν ταῦτα ἔλεξε,
Κλεομένης δὲ εἶπε τάδε·
Ὦ ξένε Μιλήσιε, τριῶν ἡμερῶν ἀποκρινοῦμαι.
ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ κυρία ἡμέρα ἐγένετο,
ὁ Κλεομένης ἠρώτησε,
Πόσων ἡμερῶν ἐστιν ἡ ὁδὸς
ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Ἰώνων θαλάττης παρὰ βασιλέα;
Greece
Persia
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ὁ δὲ Ἀριστογόρας εἷπεν, Τριῶν μηνῶν. ὁ δὲ Κλεομένης
εὐθὺς ἀπεκρίνετο· Ὦ ξένε Μιλήσιε, ἀποχώρησον ἐκ
Σπάρτης πρὸ νυκτός· οὐ γὰρ εὖ συμβουλεύεις τοῖς
Λακεδαιμονίοις, ἐθέλων αὐτοῖς ἀπὸ θαλάττης τριῶν
μηνῶν ὁδὸν ἀγαγεῖν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
ὁ δὲ Ἀριστογόρας εἷπεν,
Τριῶν μηνῶν.
ὁ δὲ Κλεομένης εὐθὺς ἀπεκρίνετο·
Ὦ ξένε Μιλήσιε,
ἀποχώρησον ἐκ Σπάρτης πρὸ νυκτός·
οὐ γὰρ εὖ συμβουλεύεις τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις,
ἐθέλων αὐτοῖς ἀπὸ θαλάττης τριῶν μηνῶν ὁδὸν ἀγαγεῖν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
for next class (Tuesday, March 15, 2011):
• Quiz: Chapter 25 Vocabulary.
– Omit προσβάλλω
• Read Chapter 25.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
for next class (Wednesday, March 16, 2011):
• Quiz: Parsing.
• Finish reading “Aristogoras and His Map”
• Read Chapter 26.
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
15 κατὰ δὲ ἑορτὴν εἰώθει ὁ ἡγεμὼν ἀπολύειν ἕνα τῷ ὄχλῳ
δέσμιον ὃν ἤθελον. 16 εἶχον δὲ τότε δέσμιον ἐπίσημον
λεγόμενον Βαραββᾶν. 17 συνηγμένων οὖν αὐτῶν εἶπεν
αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τίνα θέλετε ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν, Βαραββᾶν
ἢ Ἰησοῦν τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν; 18 ᾔδει γὰρ ὅτι διὰ
φθόνον παρέδωκαν αὐτόν.
ἀπολύω set free
βαραββᾶς ὁ Barabbas
δέσμιος –ου ὁ prisoner
εἰώθει (3 s pluperfect ind act)
it was customary
ἕνα (acc sg masc) one
ἑορτή -ῆς ἡ feast
ἐπίσημος –ον remarkable
ᾔδει (3 s pluperfect ind act) he knew
θέλω want
ὄχλος –ου ὁ mob
παραδίδωμι hand over
Πιλᾶτος –ου ὁ Pilate
συνάγω bring together
τίνα whom?
φθόνος –ου ὁ envy, jealousy
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
19 καθημένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματος ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς
αὐτὸν ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ λέγουσα, Μηδὲν σοὶ καὶ τῷ δικαίῳ
ἐκείνῳ, πολλὰ γὰρ ἔπαθον σήμερον κατ᾽ ὄναρ δι᾽ αὐτόν.
20 οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἔπεισαν τοὺς ὄχλους
ἵνα αἰτήσωνται τὸν Βαραββᾶν τὸν δὲ Ἰησοῦν
ἀπολέσωσιν.
αἰτέω ask for
ἀπόλλυμι –ολῶ -ώλεσα destroy
ἀποστέλλω –στελῶ -έστειλα
send off
ἀρχιερεύς -έως ὁ high priest
βαραββᾶς -ᾶ ὁ Barabbas
βῆμα –ατος τό (judge's) bench
ἵνα (in order) to (+ subjunctive verb)
κάθημαι sit
ὄναρ τό dream
ὄχλος –ου ὁ mob
πάσχω πείσομαι ἔπαθον suffer
πρεσβύτερος –ου ὁ elder
σήμερον today
Shelmerdine Chapter 25
21 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἡγεμὼν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Τίνα θέλετε ἀπὸ
τῶν δύο ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν, Τὸν Βαραββᾶν. 22
λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος, Τί οὖν ποιήσω Ἰησοῦν τὸν
λεγόμενον Χριστόν; λέγουσιν πάντες, Σταυρωθήτω. 23 ὁ
δὲ ἔφη, Τί γὰρ κακὸν ἐποίησεν; οἱ δὲ περισσῶς ἔκραζον
λέγοντες, Σταυρωθήτω.
(Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον 27.15-23)
ἀποκρίνομαι answer
ἀπολύω set free
βαραββᾶς -ᾶ ὁ Barabbas
δύο two
εἶπαν = εἶπον
θέλω want
κράζω cry
περισσῶς more
Πιλᾶτος –ου ὁ Pilate
σταυρόω crucify
τί what?
τίνα whom?
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