Major Divisions and Interpretations Aim: To understand how and why the Christian Church split into different denominations. What is happening in the pictures? For many years Christians where persecuted for simply being Christians. However, as soon as the religion became an official religion the Christian message soon spread through the Roman Empire and beyond. What factors contributed to the rapid spread of early Christianity? •The Diaspora: This was also known as the Greek Dispersion of the Jews through the Mediterranean lands. This meant that there where Jews in many places in the Jewish empire. Synagogues were places where Christian missionaries could start preaching. •The Greek Language: The ‘Koine’ (Common Greek) had been spoken from the 4th century. The Greeks believed in education and encouraged the use of Greek. The Roman language was Latin but it was difficult to establish so all the early letters in the Church which became the NT where written in Greek. •The Roman Empire: (The Pax Romana) enabled Roman citizens to cross boundaries and travel freely around the Roman Empire. •New Emperor: Constantine the new Roman Emperor converted to Christianity and thus made it ‘Fashionable’ to be a Christian. Copy the diagram below… The Pax Romana The Diaspora Factors that contributed to the rapid spread of Christianity. The New Emperor The Greek Language Who was to lead the ‘New Church’? • Christians appointed the apostle Peter as their leader as Jesus had requested. • Peter became the first Bishop. • Since that time, the knowledge of Jesus, has been passed on through Peter and his successors. This is known as Apostolic Succession. The word ‘Bishop’ comes from the Greek word ‘Episkops’ meaning overseer, someone who looks after things. The word ‘Pope’ comes from the Greek word ‘Papas’ meaning father. In the beginning: the Roman Catholic Church Jerusalem was the place where the followers of Christianity started their ministry. Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire came into the history of the Church almost immediately. According to the NT, at Pentecost, Peter preached the message from Jerusalem, then travelled to Rome. All roads led to Rome and all roads led from Rome. Keywords: Church = Body of believers Catholic = Universal Roman = comes from the head quarters of the Church (Rome). What happened next??? • The Christians remained united under the Pope in Rome until a disagreement about doctrine caused a split between the eastern and western parts of the Church. • This became known as the Great Schism of 1054. Keywords: •Doctrine: Teaching in the Church. •Great Schism: Disagreement within the Christian Church. The first division…. • The first disagreement is said to be over teachings in the Nicene creed relating to the Holy-Spirit. • Since no resolution was agreed a group of people separated from the RCC and named themselves Orthodox Christians. Orthodox comes from the Greek word ‘Orthos’ meaning correct or straight and ‘Doxa’ meaning belief or opinion. What are the main similarities and differences between the two Churches? • • • • Roman Catholic Church Bishops/Dioceses No married men as priests Religious leaders wear a white collar. • High emphasis on Mary the mother of God. • Belief in all 7 sacraments. Orthodox Church •Patriarchs/Patriarchates •Allows married men to become ordained •Religious leaders have a beard and dress in all black. •High emphasis on Mary the mother of God. •No seats in the Church – iconostasis, royal door, communion spoon. •Believe in all the sacraments but have baptism and confirmation at the same time (Chrismation). Draw a Venn diagram to show the similarities and differences between the two Churches A Second Split……. • In the 16th century a new division split the Christian Church in the West. It was the Protestant Reformation. •The people who began the movement did not want the Church to split but to reform. •They where protesting about the beliefs and practices which they believe where not in line with the teachings of the NT. In particular they where protesting about the amount of money and wealth the Church had accumulated. Many Church leaders had grown lazy and corrupt. •The Church had acquired their money from selling pardons. People would buy forgiveness not only for their own sins but for the sins of their dead relatives. Who was Martin Luther ( Not King!!) and what did he do? Martin Luther was a professor of Biblical studies. • He was appalled by the selling of indulgences and therefore he decided to Protest about it. • He wrote a thesis and brought it to his superior, he wished to hold a debate. • •Martin Luther never got his debate, instead he was made an outlaw of the Church • In order to save Martin Luther from being assassinated the prince of Saxony had Luther kidnapped and imprisoned. • Luther spent his time in prison writing articles and pamphlets. He also translated the bible into German. • Within 2 weeks his work was read by the whole of Germany and within 4 weeks by the whole of Europe. • This began the basis for a Protestant Church. Martin Luther and The Protestant Church What happened next??...John Calvin • Some people believed that the reformation needed to go even further • John Calvin a French lawyer and theologian thought that Churches should be organised in a democratic manner. • He believed that worship should be kept simple with no icons or images. • He believed that the bible should be the only form of authority not religious leaders. He ordered that bibles be printed in the language of the people so that they did not have to rely on religious leaders to tell them what was written they could interpret it for themselves. The Baptist Church Another group which agreed with Calvin were the Baptist's who where baptising adults by full immersion because they had read about the baptism of Jesus in the river Jordan from the bible. What are the main differences and similarities between the Catholic and Protestant Churches? Roman Catholic Church: • Recognise the Pope as the most important person. • Emphasis on the Mother of God. • Believe in transubstantiation. • Religious leaders not allowed to marry • Don’t allow any artificial methods of contraception. Protestant Church: •Recognise the bible as the most important part of worship. •Protestants put emphasis on the Ten Commandments and view worshipping statues as idolatry. •They believe in consubstantiation. •Allow religious leaders to marry. •Differing views on contraception. Even more divisions….protestant divisions....... • The ordinary people in Churches are called lay people from the word Laity. • Some Churches felt that lay people should have more say in the way Churches where run. • In England Christians where expected to conform to the rules of the Church. •At one time people where fined for not going to Church on Sunday’s. •There was not only persecution of Catholics, Jews and witches at various times but also nonconformists. Puritans • Some protestants (Puritans) thought that Calvin had not taken the reform far enough. • Oliver Cromwell was a Calvinist who lead the Parliamentary side to victory in the English Civil war against Charles I. • Many puritans did not want to get rid of the monarchy they wanted to make sure their ruler would not be a Catholic. • When Cromwell died they supported the restoration of King Charles the II. • In 1961 Charles II signed a charter giving a region of America to William Penn, in payment of a debt. • William Penn was a Quaker. • Quakers where popular at that time for their fair treatment of the native Americans. • Quakers where also known as the ‘Society of Friends’. • They had no leaders, met not in a Church but in a meeting house. • They are famous for their views against war and violence. All Quakers are pacifists. Will the Church ever Unite again????? Look at the pictures below: a) What is uniting these people? b) Will their coming together have negative or positive effects? • Keywords: • Unity: bringing people together. • Division: causing people to grow apart. Hope for unity: Today the Church offers its members a new opportunity to unite as one. This movement is called Ecumenism. There are several Christian communities today who practice Ecumenism. For example there is a group in Scotland, France and Northern Ireland.