Daily Grammar Practice

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Daily Grammar
Practice
Contents:
1. How to mark your sentences
2. Monday’s Notes
3. Tuesday’s Notes
4. Wednesday’s Notes
5. Thursday’s Notes
Directions: In the front of your DGP Section take down the
following notes for you to use while doing your DGP
homework as well as studying for the weekly DGP quizzes.
How to mark your sentences
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n=common noun
N=proper noun
poss n=possessive noun
pron=personal pronoun
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1=first person
2=second person
3=third person
Nom=nominative
Obj=objective
Poss=possessive
ref pron=reflexive pronoun
rp=relative pron
ind pron=indefinite pronoun
int pron=interrogative pronoun
dem pron=demonstrative pron
adj=adjective
art=article
av=action verb
lv= linking verb
hv=helping verb
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pres=present tense
past=past tense
f=future tense
pres perf= present perfect
tense
past perf=past perfect tense
f perf=future perfect tense
adv=adverb
prep=preposition
cc=coordinating conjunction
sc=subordinating
conjunction
How to mark your sentences
•cor conj= correlative
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conjunction
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•inf=infinitive
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•ger=gerund
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•part=participle
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•s=subject
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•vt=transitive verb
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•vi=intransitive verb
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•do=direct object
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•io=indirect object
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•pn=predicate nominative
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•pa=predicate adjective
•op=object of the prep
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•adj prep ph=adjective prep
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phrase
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•adv prep ph=adverb prep phrase
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•obj ger=object of gerund
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•ger ph=gerund phrase
obj part= object of participle
part ph=participle phrase
obj inf=object of infinitive
inf ph=
s inf=
obj comp=
app=appositive
app ph=appositive phrase
ind cl=independent clause
adv dep cl=adverb dependant clause
adj dep cl=adjective dependant
clause
n dep cl=nooun dependent clause
ss=simple sentence
cd=compound sentence
cx=complex sentence
cd-cx=compound-complex sentence
Monday Notes
1.
2.
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3.
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•
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4.
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parts of speech
Articles: a, an, the
Preposition
Shows relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in
the sentence.
•
Example:
Verb
Shows action or helps to make a statement
Action: shows action
Linking: links two words together
•
Example:
Helping: “helps” an action or linking verb
•
Example:
Tenses: Present, past, present perfect (have + participle), past perfect
(had + past participle), future perfect ( will have / shall have +past
participle)
Noun
Person, place, thing, idea
Common: begins with lower case latter
Proper: begins with capital letter
Possessive: shows ownership
5.
Pronoun
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Takes the place of the noun
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Personal: 1st person
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Singular nominative: I, you, he, she, it
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Plural nominative: we, you, they
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Singular objective: me, you, him, her, it
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Plural objective: us, you, them
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Singular possessive: my, your, his, her, its, mine, yours
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Plural possessive: our, your, their, ours, yours, theirs
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Reflexive: reflect back to ‘self’
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Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
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Relative: starts a dependent clause
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That, which, who, whom, whose
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Interrogative: asks a question
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Which? Whose? What? Whom? Who?
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Demonstrative: demonstrates which one
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This, that, these, those
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Indefinite: doesn’t refer to a definite person or thing
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Each, either, neither, few, some, all, most, several, few, many, none, one,
someone, no one, everyone, anyone, somebody, nobody, everybody, anybody,
more, much, another, both, any other, etc.
6. Adjective
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Modifies noun and pronoun
Tells Which One? How Many? What Kind?
Proper adjective: proper noun used as an adjective
7. Adverb
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Modifies adjectives, verbs and other adverbs
Tells how? When? Where? To what extent?
8. Conjunction
–
Joins words, phrases and clauses
–
Types
–
–
–
Coordinating: FANBOYS
Subordinating: starts a dependent clause and must be followed by a subject
Correlative: not only/ but also, neither/nor, either/or, both/and
9. Verbal
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Verb not behaving like a verb
Gerund: verb acting like a noun
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Participle: verb acting like an adjective
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Ends in -ing
Ends in –ing or-ed or other past tense ending
Infinitive: to + verb
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Can act like anoun, adjective, or adverb
Tuesday Notes
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sentence parts and phrases
Verb
 Transitive: takes a direct object
 Intransitive: does not take a direct object
 All linking verbs are intransitive
Subject
 Part of the sentence about which something is being said
 Must be a noun, pronoun, gerund or infinitive
 Can never be a prep phrase
Complement: takes the meaning if the subject and verb
 Types
 Direct object: noun or pronoun; follows an action verb
 Indirect object: noun or pronoun; comes before a direct object
 Predicate nominative: noun or pronoun; follows linking verb;
rename subject
 Predicate adjective: is an adjective; follows linking verb; describes
noun
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Appositive/ appositive phrase:
 Noun or pronoun that follows and remanes another noun or pronoun
Object of preposition:
 Follows preposition and tells ‘what?’
Object of infinitive:
 Follows infinitive and tells ‘what?’
Object of gerund:
 Follows gerund and tells ‘what?’
Object of participle:
 Follows participle and tells ‘what?’
Prepositional phrase:
 Group of words beginning with preposition and ending with a noun or
pronoun
 Can act as an adjective or adverb
Gerund phrase:
 Gerund + its modifiers and objects
Participle phrase:
 Participle +its modifiers and objects
Infinitive phrase:
 Infinitive +its modifiers and objects
Wednesday Notes
clauses and sentence type
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Clauses: each clause must have a subject and verb
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Types
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Independent: every sentence must have one and it can stand alone
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Dependent: can never stand alone
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Does not start with a relative pronoun or subordinating conjunction
Starts with a relative pronoun or subordinating conjunction
Types:
 Adverb: acts like a verb; usually starts subordinating conjunction
 Adjective: acts like an adjective; usually starts with a relative pronoun
 Noun: acts like a noun; usually starts with a relative pronoun
Sentence types:
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Simple: one independent clause
Compound: two or more independent clauses
Complex: one independent clause + one or more dependent
clauses
Compound-complex: two or more independent clauses+ one or
more dependent clauses
Thursday Notes
punctuation & capitalization
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Capitalization
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Semicolon
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Joins two clauses without a coordinating conjunction
Can be used in a series with commas
Colon
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Capitalize: proper nouns, proper adjectives & first word of
each sentence.
Means “note that follows,” never follows a verb or preposition.
Apostrophe
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Use to make words possessive and to make conjunctions
Don’t use to make words plural; if the word is plural and ends
in ‘s’ add apostrophe only
Possessive pronouns don’t use them
Treat singular nouns ending in ‘s’ just like any other singular
noun
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Underlining/Italicizing
Underling and italicizing ar the same thing
 Underline/italicize titles of long things, names of
ships, planes, trains, artwork, foreign language
expressions
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Quotation Marks
Quote titles of short things, dialogue, words copied
form other sources
 Commas and periods that follow quoted words always
go inside closing quotation marks
 Colons and semicolons that follow quoted words
always go outside closing quotation marks.
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Hyphen: used to make two words one
Dash: used to indicate a break in thought or to
set off part of a sentence
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Comma (rules)
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12.
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Adverb dependent clause, independent clause
Independent clause, cc independent clause
Independent clause; independent clause
Introductory participle phrase,
Introductory prepositional phrase,
, nonessential appositive,
, nonessential adjective clause,
Items, in, a, series
, noun of direct address,
Day of the week, month, year,
City, state
Introductory word,
, interrupter,
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