Sarf_Lesson_07

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QURANIC GRAMMAR
AS-SARF
“Morphology of the words”
Lesson 7
Lessons from the book
MABADE” ALA’RABIYAH –
basics of Arabic Grammar
RASHEED SHARTOONI
Compiled by: Sheikh Safdar Razi Ali
Types of Masdar
•
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Masdar is the infinitive noun (derived from a
past tense verb normally ). It signifies the
occurrence of an action or the existence of a
state.
The types of Masdar:
MASDAR SAREEH ( the regular)
Masdar Meemi
Masdar Sinaa'e – Artificial Infinitive
Masdar of Oneness / Unity and type
Masdar Moawal
THE MĪMĪ INFINITIVE
(ALMASDAR ALMIMI)
• It is formed from all verbs by adding a mīm (prefix).
• The mīmī infinitive is formed from triliteral verbs in the form َ‫مَفعل‬
for example: . َ‫مَظن‬
• It is formed from the letter verb Mafalَ‫مفعل‬
Nazara (Look)  Manzarun َ َ‫ ظن‬-> َ َ‫مظن‬
Dharaba (Hit) Madhrabunَ‫ ض ب‬-> َ‫مض ب‬
• The exceptions to this are quasi-sound verbs whose first root
letter is a vowel letter, these will be in the form , ‫مَف لعل‬for
example: .‫وعد‬
‫م ل‬
• If the first letter was a vowel letter then it will be on scale of
Mafe’l ‫ مفعل‬Example:
– Wa Qa Aa  MowQeAa َ‫ وقع‬-> ‫موقلع‬
11-Masdar Meemi vs.noun of time
(ZAMAAN) and place (MAKAAN)
Note: Noun of Place / Time has the form of Mafal and Mafel.
Therefore all Noun of place/time nouns are Masdar Meeme, but
not every Masdar Meeme is a noun of place/time.
• Mafalَ‫ مفعل‬similar to ISM MAKAAN –َ‫مطبخ‬
• َ‫ اسمَمكان‬kitchen =MATBAKH
• Mafe’l ‫ مفعل‬similar to ISM ZAMAAN –َ‫مغ ب‬
• َ‫ اسمَزمان‬sunset = MAGHRIB
• This will be further studied in detail
12- Masdar Meemi
• The mīmī infinitive is formed from verbs with more than three
letters by placing them in the passive presentence (MAJHOOL)
YOFA’LO ‫يفعل‬voice of the present tense and replacing the present
tense prefix letter with a mīm which has a d ummah, , and a
Fatha before the last letter.
• for example: AKRAMA> YOKRIMO> MOKRAMO
• ‫َمک م<< يك مَ<< أك م‬
• Ufa’elo  Mufa’alo
– Qarraba (to be close) َ‫ق ب‬ Present Tense YoQareBa ‫ يق ب‬
MuQaraba َ‫مق ب‬
– ZalZala ‫( زلزل‬Earthquake)YuZilZeLu ‫زلزل‬
‫ي ل‬ ManZelZalu َ‫مزلزل‬
Please Note: This form also applies to Object noun (ISIM Mafool).
Thus every Object noun is a Masdar Meem but not every Masdar
Meem is an object noun.
Masdar Meem
• Some words become Masdar Meem by adding
a circle Ta.
• Haba َ‫(حب‬Love) ‫محبة‬MoHabatun
• NaFaAa ‫(ظنفع‬Benefit)  ‫مظنفعة‬ManFaAah
The noun of MASDAR (INFINITIVE)
• A noun of an infinitive noun is a word which
indicates the meaning of an infinitive and it
has less letters than its original verb either
literally or implicitly,
• for example: noun of the infinitive noun or
ISIM AL- MASDAR ‫العطاء‬a gift derived from
the MASDAR ‫ اإلعطاء‬which is derived from
the verb gave ‫اعطى‬
Masdar Sinaa'e ‫المصد َالصظناعي‬
• Artificial Infinitive is an infinitive that makes a
noun collective / “entire kind”. For example
Human Artificial Infinitive  Humanity.
• The noun is suffixed with a Relating Ya and a
Circle Taa is added at the end.
• Insaan ‫( اظنسان‬Human)  Insaaneyyah ‫اظنساظنية‬
(Humanity)
• Islam ‫اسالم‬ islamiyaah ‫اسالمية‬
Masdar of Oneness /Unity=FA’LAH
• Masdar of Oneness / Unity is a noun that indicates
an action happening once.
• The tri-lettered form is on the scale of Fa’latun or
FA’LAH َ‫فعلَ> فعلة‬
• DhaRaBa (he Hit) َ‫ض ب‬-> DhaRaBTan َ‫( ض بة‬A Hit)
• For Non Tri-Lettered, it is suffixed with a circle Ta:
• In TalaQa ‫ اظنطلق‬ InTalaqatan َ‫اظنطالقة‬
He left  A Leaving
Masdar of Type= FE’LAH
• Masdar of Type is a noun that indicate a certain “type” of
behavior.
• The behavior is determined by the context of the sentence.
• Example: “I was at the grocery store and Joe gave me a look”
The “type” of look is determined by the context and not
specified in Masdar of Type.
• Tri-lettered noun are on the scale of Fe’latun or FE’LAH
• ‫فعل>فعلة‬.
• Nazara (he Looked)-> NizRah ‫ ظنَ َ> ظنَ ة‬a look
• Jalasa (he sat down)  Jelsahَََ‫ جلس> جلسة‬a sitting
There is no particular form for non tri-lettered.
• ‫ التفت‬he observed ‫ ألتفاتة‬an observation
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