JAT EA Chapter 07 - Somerset Academy

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Early China
Chapter Introduction
Section 1 China’s First Civilizations
Section 2 Life in Ancient China
Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties
Reading Review
Chapter Assessment
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Early China
Chapter Objectives
• Discuss how river valleys, mountains,
and deserts influenced the
development of Chinese civilization.
• Discuss how the lack of order
encouraged the growth of three
important belief systems.
• Summarize the ruling philosophies,
accomplishments, and failures of the
Qin and Han dynasties.
Early China
China’s First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read
Section Overview
This section describes the first civilizations
in China and how the geography of the
region, especially its rivers, mountains,
and deserts, influenced China’s cultural
development.
China’s First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Focusing on the Main Ideas
• Rivers, mountains, and deserts helped
shape China’s civilization.
• Rulers known as the Shang became
powerful because they controlled land
and had strong armies.
• Chinese rulers claimed that the Mandate
of Heaven gave them the right to rule.
China’s First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Locating Places
• Huang He (HWAHNG HUH)
• Chang Jiang (CHAHNG JYAHNG)
• Anyang (AHN·YAHNG)
Meeting People
• Wu Wang (WOO WAHNG)
China’s First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Building Your Vocabulary
• dynasty (DY·nuh·stee)
• aristocrat (uh·RIHS·tuh·KRAT)
• pictograph (PIHK·tuh·GRAF)
• ideograph (IH·dee·uh·GRAF)
• bureaucracy (byu·RAH·kruh·see)
• mandate (MAN·DAYT)
• Dao (DOW)
China’s First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Summarizing Information Complete a
chart like the one on page 224 of your
textbook describing the characteristics of
the Shang and Zhou dynasties.
China’s First Civilizations
China’s Geography
• Huang He, or the Yellow River, flows for
more than 2,900 miles across China.
• Flooding of the river brought destruction
and good farming conditions to China.
• Chang Jiang, or the Yangtze River, is
about 3,400 miles long and flows across
central China.
(pages 225–226)
China’s First Civilizations
China’s Geography (cont.)
• China has very little farm land because
much of the country is either mountains
or deserts.
• The Middle Kingdom was created after
the Chinese people united to form one
kingdom.
(pages 225–226)
China’s First Civilizations
What effect did the mountains and
deserts have on the Chinese
people?
The mountains and deserts
separated the Chinese from most
other peoples.
China’s First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty
• Archaeologists believe the Huang He
valley was the center of Chinese
civilization.
• The first rulers were probably part of the
Xia dynasty.
• The Shang kings ruled from about 1750
B.C. to 1122 B.C.
• Anyang was China’s first capital. It was
built during the Shang dynasty.
(pages 226–229)
China’s First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty (cont.)
• People of the Shang dynasty were
divided into groups.
• The king and his family were the most
powerful group.
• Warlords and other royal officials were
in the class below the kings.
• They were aristocrats, nobles whose
wealth came from the land they owned.
(pages 226–229)
China’s First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty (cont.)
• Traders and artisans were below the
aristocrats.
• Most of the lower classes were farmers.
• Slaves captured during wars were the
lowest class of people.
• People in the Shang dynasty believed in
many spirits and gods and honored
ancestors with offerings.
(pages 226–229)
China’s First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty (cont.)
• Shang kings believed they received
wisdom and power from the gods,
spirits, and ancestors.
• Early Chinese writing used pictographs,
or characters that stand for objects.
• Ideographs are two or more pictographs
joined to represent an idea.
• Artisans created many works but are
best known for their bronze objects.
(pages 226–229)
China’s First Civilizations
How does the Chinese language
differ from the alphabet system
used by Americans?
In the American alphabet, each
letter represents a sound. The
letters, or sounds, are put together
to make words. In the Chinese
language, each marking, or symbol,
represents a whole word.
China’s First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty
• Wu Wang and his followers rebelled
against the Shang dynasty and created
the Zhou dynasty.
• The Zhou dynasty ruled
longer than any other
dynasty in Chinese history.
(pages 229–231)
China’s First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)
• Kings in the Zhou dynasty served as the
head of the government.
• A bureaucracy—officials who are
responsible for different areas of
government—served under the king.
• The Zhou kingdom was divided into
smaller territories.
• Each territory was led by an aristocrat.
• Zhou kings were thought to be the link
between the gods and people. (pages 229–231)
China’s First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)
• The Mandate of Heaven was a
heavenly law that gave Zhou kings
the power to rule.
• The Mandate of Heaven also gave
people rights.
• The Dao was the proper way kings
were to rule their people.
• Irrigation and flood-control systems
were developed during the Zhou
dynasty.
(pages 229–231)
China’s First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)
• Farm tools, such as the plow, were
developed.
• Silk was an important trade item during
the Zhou dynasty.
• The Period of Warring States occurred
before the fall of the Zhou dynasty.
• During this time, the local rulers began
fighting with each other.
(pages 229–231)
China’s First Civilizations
What innovative weapons and
equipment were used during the
Period of Warring States?
The Chinese used crossbows for
fighting. They invented the saddle
and stirrup during the Period of
Warring States.
China’s First Civilizations
What is a dynasty?
A dynasty is a line of rulers who
belong to the same family.
China’s First Civilizations
What were oracle bones and how
were they used?
Oracle bones were bones with
questions on them used to interpret
answers from the gods.
China’s First Civilizations
Analyze How did the Mandate of
Heaven allow for the overthrow of
kings in ancient China?
If a king failed in his duty and the
kingdom experienced a disaster, the
king could be replaced.
China’s First Civilizations
Evaluate What were some
important technological changes
during the Zhou dynasty, and how
did they lead to a larger population?
Development of irrigation and floodcontrol systems, along with the iron
plow, led to increased crop
production and a rising population.
China’s First Civilizations
Explain How did ancient Chinese
kings maintain control of their
dynasties?
Kings maintained large armies to
conquer land and protect borders
but also appointed warlords to
govern the kingdom’s territories.
China’s First Civilizations
Define the Mandate of Heaven, and
describe its effect on the rulers and
people of ancient China.
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read
Section Overview
This section focuses on society in early
China, including the great religious and
philosophical systems that were created.
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Focusing on the Main Ideas
• Chinese society had three main social
classes: landowning aristocrats,
farmers, and merchants.
• Three Chinese philosophies,
Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism,
grew out of a need for order.
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Meeting People
• Confucius (kuhn·FYOO·shuhs)
• Laozi (LOWD·ZOO)
• Hanfeizi (HAN·fay·DZOO)
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Building Your Vocabulary
• social class
• Filial peity (FIH·lee·uhl PY·uh·tee)
• Confucianism
(kuhn·FYOO·shuh·NIH·zuhm)
• Daoism (DOW·IH·zuhm)
• Legalism (LEE·guh·LIH·zuhm)
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Organizing Information Create a
pyramid diagram like the one on page
232 of your textbook. Show the social
classes in ancient China from most
important (top) to least important
(bottom).
Life in Ancient China
Life in Ancient China
• A social class includes people who
share a similar position in society.
• Chinese society had three main social
classes: aristocrats, farmers, and
merchants.
• Aristocrats grew rich from farmers who
grew crops on the land the aristocrats
owned.
(pages 232–235)
Life in Ancient China
Life in Ancient China (cont.)
• Most Chinese people were farmers.
• Farmers paid aristocrats with part of
their crops.
• Merchants were in the lowest class.
• They grew rich but were still looked
down on by aristocrats and farmers.
• Chinese families were large, and
children were expected to work on
farms.
(pages 232–235)
Life in Ancient China
Life in Ancient China (cont.)
• Filial piety means children had to
respect parents and elders.
• Men were considered more important
than women in Chinese society.
• Men went to school, ran the
government, and fought wars.
• Women raised children and
managed their households.
(pages 232–235)
Life in Ancient China
Life in Ancient China (cont.)
A Chinese village.
(pages 232–235)
Life in Ancient China
How did aristocrats use farmers to
grow rich?
Aristocrats allowed farmers to use
their land. In exchange, farmers
gave part of their crop to the
landowners.
Life in Ancient China
Chinese Thinkers
• Three major theories—Confucianism,
Daoism, and Legalism—were developed
to reinstate peace after the Period of the
Warring States.
• Confucius was a great thinker and
teacher, who believed that people
needed a sense of duty to be good.
• Confucianism taught that all men with
a talent for government should take part
in government.
(pages 235–239)
Life in Ancient China
Chinese Thinkers (cont.)
• Daoism teaches that people should give
up worldly desires and encourages the
importance of nature.
• Legalism is the belief that society
needs a system of harsh laws
and punishments.
• The scholar Hanfeizi
developed Legalism.
(pages 235–239)
Life in Ancient China
Why did the aristocrats dislike
Confucianism?
According to Confucianism, any
man with a talent for government
should take part in government.
This idea opened government up to
the lower classes.
Life in Ancient China
Describe the concept of filial piety.
Family members placed the needs
of the head of the family above their
own.
Life in Ancient China
Why did many aristocrats favor the
philosophy of Legalism?
It emphasized force and power and
did not require leaders to show
kindness or understanding to their
subjects.
Life in Ancient China
Contrast How did Daoism differ
from Confucianism?
Confucianism encouraged people to
work hard to improve the world, while
Daoism taught that people should
give up their concerns about the
world and seek inner peace.
Life in Ancient China
Writing Questions Suppose you
could interview Confucius about his
concept of duty. Write five
questions you might ask him about
the subject. Include possible
responses.
Answers will vary.
Life in Ancient China
Expository Writing Do you think
any of the Chinese philosophies
studied in this section are reflected
in our society today? Write an
essay explaining your answer.
Answers will vary.
Life in Ancient China
Think about the role of different family
members in ancient China. Have them
explain which role they would like best
and which they would like least. Explain
your reasons.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read
Section Overview
This section looks at the Qin and Han
dynasties and the changes they brought
to China in the areas of religion, trade,
government, and technology.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Focusing on the Main Ideas
• Qin Shihuangdi used harsh methods to
unify and defend China.
• Developments during the Han dynasty
improved life for all Chinese.
• The Silk Road carried Chinese goods as
far as Greece and Rome.
• Unrest in China helped Buddhism to
spread.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Locating Places
• Guangzhou (GWAHNG·JOH)
• Silk Road
• Luoyang (loo·WOH·YAHNG)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Meeting People
• Qin Shihuangdi
(CHIHN SHEE·hwahng·dee)
• Liu Bang (lee·OO BAHNG)
• Han Wudi (HAHN WOO·DEE)
Building Your Vocabulary
• acupuncture
(A·kyuh·PUHNGK·chuhr)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Determining Cause and Effect Complete
a diagram like the one on page 240 of your
textbook showing the inventions of the Han
dynasty and the resulting impact on society.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Emperor Qin Shihuangdi
• Qin was a ruler of a local state during
the Zhou dynasty.
• He gradually took over neighboring
states and declared himself Qin
Shihuangdi, or First Qin Emperor.
• Qin’s rule was based on legalism.
• Qin abolished the officials’ authority to
pass their posts on to their sons.
(pages 241–242)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (cont.)
• He became the only person authorized
to fill empty posts.
• Qin united China, created one type of
currency, ordered the building of roads
and buildings, and connected the Chang
Jiang to central China by canal.
(pages 241–242)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (cont.)
• The Great Wall of China was
built to protect the Chinese
from the Xiongnu, a nomadic
people living north of China.
• Chinese people believed Qin
Shihuangdi was a harsh ruler,
and they overthrew his
dynasty after his death.
(pages 241–242)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
What are some examples of Qin
Shihuangdi’s cruelty in ruling his
people?
Qin punished or killed anyone who
opposed him. He forced farmers to
leave their farms to build the Great
Wall of China. He also burned
scholars’ writing.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Han Dynasty
• Liu Bang founded the Han dynasty in
202 B.C.
• Civil service
examinations
began when Han
Wudi started
testing potential
government
employees.
(pages 244–246)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Han Dynasty (cont.)
• Students prepared for many years to
take the exams.
• The population tripled during the Han
dynasty.
• Farmers had to divide their land among
more and more sons, which left them
with very little land.
• Farmers sold their land to aristocrats
and became tenant farmers to survive.
(pages 244–246)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Han Dynasty (cont.)
• The Chinese invented many new
products during the Han dynasty, such
as the waterwheel, the rudder, drill bits,
steel, and paper.
• Chinese doctors began practicing
acupuncture, the practice of easing
pain by sticking needles into patients’
skin.
(pages 244–246)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
How did the invention of the rudder
change Chinese trade?
With the rudder, the Chinese could
move ships’ sails differently. Ships
could now sail into the wind rather
than with it. This meant Chinese
ships could travel to the islands of
Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Silk Road
• Silk was the most valuable trade
product.
• The Silk Road was an overland trade
route extended from western China to
southwest Asia.
(pages 246–247)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
What empire had General Zhang
Qian encountered during his 13year trip west and how did he
describe it upon his return?
He had visited the Roman Empire
and described the large cities with
people wearing embroidered clothes
and driving chariots.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Major Changes in China
• Buddhism spread from India to China.
• The Han dynasty fell after wars,
rebellions, and plots against the
emperor.
• Civil war began, and nomads invaded
the country before the government
collapsed.
• Buddhism helped people cope with the
chaotic times.
(page 248)
The Qin and Han Dynasties
How did Buddhism become popular
in China?
First, merchants from India brought
Buddhism to China. During the
unrest of the fall of the Han dynasty,
people found comfort in the
teachings of Buddhism, and more
people began practicing the
Buddhist religion.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Why did Qin Shihuangdi have the
Great Wall built?
to keep out the Xiongnu
The Qin and Han Dynasties
What were civil service
examinations and why were they
created?
Civil service examinations were
long, difficult tests used to qualify
people for jobs in the government
bureaucracy. They were used to
find the best and most talented
people.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Geography Skills What barriers
did merchants who used the Silk
Road have to cross?
mountains, deserts, seas, oceans,
and harsh terrain
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Explain How did Qin Shihuangdi
make China’s central government
stronger?
He appointed censors who made
sure that government officials did
their jobs. He also appointed and
dismissed aristocrats who ran the
provinces rather than allowing their
positions to be hereditary.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Analyze Why did the Qin dynasty
fall?
Because Qin Shihuangdi was such
a ruthless ruler, his dynasty was
overthrown by unhappy subjects
soon after his death.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Descriptive Writing Zhang Qian
wrote that Romans had short hair,
wore embroidered clothes, and rode
in chariots. Name three things that
he might have written about people
in the United States after seeing
them for the first time.
Answers will vary.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Make a list of developments you
consider positive and developments you
consider harmful or negative from the era
of the Qin and Han dynasties.
Early China
Section 1: China’s First Civilizations
Focusing on the Main Ideas
• Rivers, mountains, and deserts helped
shape China’s civilization.
• Rulers known as the Shang became
powerful because they controlled land
and had strong armies.
• Chinese rulers claimed that the Mandate
of Heaven gave them the right to rule.
Early China
Section 2: Life in Ancient China
Focusing on the Main Ideas
• Chinese society had three main social
classes: landowning aristocrats, farmers,
and merchants.
• Three Chinese philosophies,
Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism,
grew out of a need for order.
Early China
Section 3: The Qin and Han
Dynasties
Focusing on the Main Ideas
• Qin Shihuangdi used harsh methods to
unify and defend China.
• Developments during the Han dynasty
improved life for all Chinese.
• The Silk Road carried Chinese goods as
far as Greece and Rome.
• Unrest in China helped Buddhism to
spread.
Early China
Review Vocabulary
Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions.
__
D 1. right to command
A 2. line of rulers in the
__
same family
__
B 3. upper class whose
wealth is based on land
__
I 4. the ideas of ___
included a duty to
participate in
government
C 5. appointed government
__
officials
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
dynasty
aristocrat
bureaucracy
mandate
social class
filial piety
acupuncture
Daoism
Confucianism
Early China
Review Vocabulary
Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions.
__
F 6. head of family honored
by other members
G 7. medical treatment
__
using thin needles
__
E 8. people with a similar
position in society
__
H 9. the teachings of Laozi
are the basis of ___
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
dynasty
aristocrat
bureaucracy
mandate
social class
filial piety
acupuncture
Daoism
Confucianism
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 1 China’s First Civilizations
What geographical features shaped
China’s civilizations?
rivers, mountains, and deserts
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 1 China’s First Civilizations
Why did the Shang rulers become
powerful?
They controlled land and had strong
armies.
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 2 Life in Ancient China
What were the three main classes
in Chinese society?
landowning aristocrats, farmers and
merchants
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 2 Life in Ancient China
Identify three Chinese philosophies
and the reason they emerged.
Confucianism, Daoism, and
Legalism grew out of a need for
order.
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties
How did developments during the
Han dynasty affect the Chinese
people?
Their lives were improved.
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties
What was the purpose of the Silk
Road?
to carry Chinese goods to other
areas—as far as Greece and Rome
Early China
Contrast How is the ancient Chinese
writing system different from
cuneiform and hieroglyphic writing?
The Chinese system used
pictographs and ideographs, while
cuneiform and hieroglyphics used
markings, forms, and some pictures.
The Chinese system is still in use, but
cuneiform and hieroglyphics were
replaced by systems based on
speech sounds.
Early China
Describe How did Shang artisans
create bronze urns?
They made clay molds in several
sections, worked detailed
designs into the clay, fit the
pieces of the mold together,
poured in molten bronze, and
removed the mold after the
bronze had cooled.
Early China
Analyze How is Daoism the
opposite of Confucianism in some
ways?
Daoism teaches that people
should try to be in harmony with
the world; Confucianism teaches
that people should work to
change and improve the world.
Explore online information about the
topics introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser
and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click
on Chapter 7-Chapter Overviews to preview
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Maps
The Geography of China
Shang Empire
Zhou Empire
Qin and Han Empires 221 B.C.–A.D. 220
Trading in the Ancient World
Charts
Chinese Numbering System
Chinese Philosophers
Four Chinese Dynasties
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corresponding slides.
Click the map to view an interactive version.
Click the map to view an interactive version.
China’s First Civilizations
The Qinling Mountains stretch from west to east and
form the geographic line between north and south
China.
Life in Ancient China
Taoists believe the only acceptable time to inflict
harm on another living creature is in self-defense.
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Great Wall of China stretches more than 4,000
miles from east to west across China. Today,
sections of the Great Wall are deteriorating from
natural erosion.
Reading Social Studies
Learn It!
Headings and Punctuation
As you read this chapter, pay attention to bold
headings and punctuation. They are used by
authors to help you better understand what you are
reading. Look at the heading on page 235 of your
textbook, Chinese Thinkers. By putting these
words in red, the author lets you know, even before
you begin reading, that this part of the chapter is
about famous thinkers in Chinese history. Paying
attention to punctuation marks also can help you
understand the text. Look at the punctuation marks
in the paragraph on the next slide.
Reading Social Studies
Words are
indented to
show where a
new paragraph
and a new idea
begin
To Confucius,
the best way to
behave was
similar to an idea
known as the
Golden Rule:
“Do unto others
as you would
have others do
unto you.”
—from page 236
A colon (:) tells
you that the
words that
follow are an
illustration or
an explanation
of the first part
of the
sentence.
Quotation marks
have several uses.
Here they are used
to set off words
taken from another
source.
Reading Social Studies
Practice It!
Punctuation Clues
Look at the heading and punctuation in the paragraph
from Chapter 7 on page 223 of your textbook and
answer the following questions.
• Based on the heading, what do you think this
section will be about?
How the Zhou empire came to an end.
Reading Social Studies
Practice It!
Punctuation Clues
Look at the heading and punctuation in the paragraph
from Chapter 7 on page 223 of your textbook and
answer the following questions.
• Why do you think the phrase “Period of the Warring
States” is in quotation marks?
It is the title of a period in history.
• How will you know when a new paragraph begins?
There will be an indented line or new heading.
Early China
Introduction
China’s First Civilizations
Life in Ancient China
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Focus on Everyday Life
The Role of Women
Zheng Zhenxiang was China’s first female archaeologist. In
1976 she found the tomb of Fu Hao, China’s first female
general. In the tomb were more than 2,000 artifacts from the
Shang dynasty, including weapons, bronze vessels, jade
objects, and bones with Chinese characters carved on them.
Fu Hao, the wife of King Wu Ding, was given a royal burial.
She was famous for her strength, martial arts skills, and
military strategies. She often helped her husband
defeat their enemies on the battlefield. Fu Hao was
the first female in China’s history to receive the
highest military rank. Her tomb and its artifacts
reveal the grand civilization of China’s Shang dynasty.
During this period, the Chinese developed writing, a
calendar, and musical instruments.
Connecting to the Past
1. What was Fu Hao famous for during her
life?
She was famous for her strength, martial arts
skills, and military strategies.
2. Describe what the artifacts found in Fu Hao’s
tomb might reveal about life during that
time?
The Shang dynasty was a sophisticated
civilization, with bronze technology,
writing, a calendar, and musical
instruments.
Focus on Everyday Life
Chinese Farming
Farmers in ancient China had to find ways to grow enough
food to feed their population. It was often difficult because of
the dry mountainous land. Over centuries, farmers learned to
cut terraces—flat areas, like a series of deep steps—into the
mountain slopes. Terraces made more land available for
farming and kept the soil from eroding, or wearing away. Early
farmers also used the terraces as a way to irrigate their crops.
As rain fell, it flowed down from one terrace to the next,
watering the crops. This method of farming, called terrace
farming, is still used in China today. Farmers in ancient China
were the first to use insects to protect their crops from damage
by other insects. As early as A.D. 304, Chinese farmers used
ants to prevent other insects from damaging their citrus fruit
trees. They also used frogs and birds for pest control.
Connecting to the Past
1. How did farmers in ancient China increase
the amount of productive farmland?
They built terraces into the mountain slopes.
2. What three farming
methods helped farmers
in ancient China grow
more food?
terrace farming, irrigation,
and pest control
Confucius 551- 479 B.C.
Qin Shihuangdi c. 259-210 B.C.
Daily Focus Skills
Transparency 7–1
Chapter 7
Daily Focus Skills
Transparency 7–2
Chapter 7
Daily Focus Skills
Transparency 7–3
Chapter 7
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