Early China Chapter Introduction Section 1 China’s First Civilizations Section 2 Life in Ancient China Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Early China Chapter Objectives • Discuss how river valleys, mountains, and deserts influenced the development of Chinese civilization. • Discuss how the lack of order encouraged the growth of three important belief systems. • Summarize the ruling philosophies, accomplishments, and failures of the Qin and Han dynasties. Early China China’s First Civilizations Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the first civilizations in China and how the geography of the region, especially its rivers, mountains, and deserts, influenced China’s cultural development. China’s First Civilizations Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape China’s civilization. • Rulers known as the Shang became powerful because they controlled land and had strong armies. • Chinese rulers claimed that the Mandate of Heaven gave them the right to rule. China’s First Civilizations Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Huang He (HWAHNG HUH) • Chang Jiang (CHAHNG JYAHNG) • Anyang (AHN·YAHNG) Meeting People • Wu Wang (WOO WAHNG) China’s First Civilizations Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • dynasty (DY·nuh·stee) • aristocrat (uh·RIHS·tuh·KRAT) • pictograph (PIHK·tuh·GRAF) • ideograph (IH·dee·uh·GRAF) • bureaucracy (byu·RAH·kruh·see) • mandate (MAN·DAYT) • Dao (DOW) China’s First Civilizations Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Complete a chart like the one on page 224 of your textbook describing the characteristics of the Shang and Zhou dynasties. China’s First Civilizations China’s Geography • Huang He, or the Yellow River, flows for more than 2,900 miles across China. • Flooding of the river brought destruction and good farming conditions to China. • Chang Jiang, or the Yangtze River, is about 3,400 miles long and flows across central China. (pages 225–226) China’s First Civilizations China’s Geography (cont.) • China has very little farm land because much of the country is either mountains or deserts. • The Middle Kingdom was created after the Chinese people united to form one kingdom. (pages 225–226) China’s First Civilizations What effect did the mountains and deserts have on the Chinese people? The mountains and deserts separated the Chinese from most other peoples. China’s First Civilizations The Shang Dynasty • Archaeologists believe the Huang He valley was the center of Chinese civilization. • The first rulers were probably part of the Xia dynasty. • The Shang kings ruled from about 1750 B.C. to 1122 B.C. • Anyang was China’s first capital. It was built during the Shang dynasty. (pages 226–229) China’s First Civilizations The Shang Dynasty (cont.) • People of the Shang dynasty were divided into groups. • The king and his family were the most powerful group. • Warlords and other royal officials were in the class below the kings. • They were aristocrats, nobles whose wealth came from the land they owned. (pages 226–229) China’s First Civilizations The Shang Dynasty (cont.) • Traders and artisans were below the aristocrats. • Most of the lower classes were farmers. • Slaves captured during wars were the lowest class of people. • People in the Shang dynasty believed in many spirits and gods and honored ancestors with offerings. (pages 226–229) China’s First Civilizations The Shang Dynasty (cont.) • Shang kings believed they received wisdom and power from the gods, spirits, and ancestors. • Early Chinese writing used pictographs, or characters that stand for objects. • Ideographs are two or more pictographs joined to represent an idea. • Artisans created many works but are best known for their bronze objects. (pages 226–229) China’s First Civilizations How does the Chinese language differ from the alphabet system used by Americans? In the American alphabet, each letter represents a sound. The letters, or sounds, are put together to make words. In the Chinese language, each marking, or symbol, represents a whole word. China’s First Civilizations The Zhou Dynasty • Wu Wang and his followers rebelled against the Shang dynasty and created the Zhou dynasty. • The Zhou dynasty ruled longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history. (pages 229–231) China’s First Civilizations The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) • Kings in the Zhou dynasty served as the head of the government. • A bureaucracy—officials who are responsible for different areas of government—served under the king. • The Zhou kingdom was divided into smaller territories. • Each territory was led by an aristocrat. • Zhou kings were thought to be the link between the gods and people. (pages 229–231) China’s First Civilizations The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) • The Mandate of Heaven was a heavenly law that gave Zhou kings the power to rule. • The Mandate of Heaven also gave people rights. • The Dao was the proper way kings were to rule their people. • Irrigation and flood-control systems were developed during the Zhou dynasty. (pages 229–231) China’s First Civilizations The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) • Farm tools, such as the plow, were developed. • Silk was an important trade item during the Zhou dynasty. • The Period of Warring States occurred before the fall of the Zhou dynasty. • During this time, the local rulers began fighting with each other. (pages 229–231) China’s First Civilizations What innovative weapons and equipment were used during the Period of Warring States? The Chinese used crossbows for fighting. They invented the saddle and stirrup during the Period of Warring States. China’s First Civilizations What is a dynasty? A dynasty is a line of rulers who belong to the same family. China’s First Civilizations What were oracle bones and how were they used? Oracle bones were bones with questions on them used to interpret answers from the gods. China’s First Civilizations Analyze How did the Mandate of Heaven allow for the overthrow of kings in ancient China? If a king failed in his duty and the kingdom experienced a disaster, the king could be replaced. China’s First Civilizations Evaluate What were some important technological changes during the Zhou dynasty, and how did they lead to a larger population? Development of irrigation and floodcontrol systems, along with the iron plow, led to increased crop production and a rising population. China’s First Civilizations Explain How did ancient Chinese kings maintain control of their dynasties? Kings maintained large armies to conquer land and protect borders but also appointed warlords to govern the kingdom’s territories. China’s First Civilizations Define the Mandate of Heaven, and describe its effect on the rulers and people of ancient China. Life in Ancient China Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section focuses on society in early China, including the great religious and philosophical systems that were created. Life in Ancient China Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Chinese society had three main social classes: landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants. • Three Chinese philosophies, Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism, grew out of a need for order. Life in Ancient China Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People • Confucius (kuhn·FYOO·shuhs) • Laozi (LOWD·ZOO) • Hanfeizi (HAN·fay·DZOO) Life in Ancient China Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • social class • Filial peity (FIH·lee·uhl PY·uh·tee) • Confucianism (kuhn·FYOO·shuh·NIH·zuhm) • Daoism (DOW·IH·zuhm) • Legalism (LEE·guh·LIH·zuhm) Life in Ancient China Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Create a pyramid diagram like the one on page 232 of your textbook. Show the social classes in ancient China from most important (top) to least important (bottom). Life in Ancient China Life in Ancient China • A social class includes people who share a similar position in society. • Chinese society had three main social classes: aristocrats, farmers, and merchants. • Aristocrats grew rich from farmers who grew crops on the land the aristocrats owned. (pages 232–235) Life in Ancient China Life in Ancient China (cont.) • Most Chinese people were farmers. • Farmers paid aristocrats with part of their crops. • Merchants were in the lowest class. • They grew rich but were still looked down on by aristocrats and farmers. • Chinese families were large, and children were expected to work on farms. (pages 232–235) Life in Ancient China Life in Ancient China (cont.) • Filial piety means children had to respect parents and elders. • Men were considered more important than women in Chinese society. • Men went to school, ran the government, and fought wars. • Women raised children and managed their households. (pages 232–235) Life in Ancient China Life in Ancient China (cont.) A Chinese village. (pages 232–235) Life in Ancient China How did aristocrats use farmers to grow rich? Aristocrats allowed farmers to use their land. In exchange, farmers gave part of their crop to the landowners. Life in Ancient China Chinese Thinkers • Three major theories—Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism—were developed to reinstate peace after the Period of the Warring States. • Confucius was a great thinker and teacher, who believed that people needed a sense of duty to be good. • Confucianism taught that all men with a talent for government should take part in government. (pages 235–239) Life in Ancient China Chinese Thinkers (cont.) • Daoism teaches that people should give up worldly desires and encourages the importance of nature. • Legalism is the belief that society needs a system of harsh laws and punishments. • The scholar Hanfeizi developed Legalism. (pages 235–239) Life in Ancient China Why did the aristocrats dislike Confucianism? According to Confucianism, any man with a talent for government should take part in government. This idea opened government up to the lower classes. Life in Ancient China Describe the concept of filial piety. Family members placed the needs of the head of the family above their own. Life in Ancient China Why did many aristocrats favor the philosophy of Legalism? It emphasized force and power and did not require leaders to show kindness or understanding to their subjects. Life in Ancient China Contrast How did Daoism differ from Confucianism? Confucianism encouraged people to work hard to improve the world, while Daoism taught that people should give up their concerns about the world and seek inner peace. Life in Ancient China Writing Questions Suppose you could interview Confucius about his concept of duty. Write five questions you might ask him about the subject. Include possible responses. Answers will vary. Life in Ancient China Expository Writing Do you think any of the Chinese philosophies studied in this section are reflected in our society today? Write an essay explaining your answer. Answers will vary. Life in Ancient China Think about the role of different family members in ancient China. Have them explain which role they would like best and which they would like least. Explain your reasons. The Qin and Han Dynasties Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section looks at the Qin and Han dynasties and the changes they brought to China in the areas of religion, trade, government, and technology. The Qin and Han Dynasties Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Qin Shihuangdi used harsh methods to unify and defend China. • Developments during the Han dynasty improved life for all Chinese. • The Silk Road carried Chinese goods as far as Greece and Rome. • Unrest in China helped Buddhism to spread. The Qin and Han Dynasties Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Guangzhou (GWAHNG·JOH) • Silk Road • Luoyang (loo·WOH·YAHNG) The Qin and Han Dynasties Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People • Qin Shihuangdi (CHIHN SHEE·hwahng·dee) • Liu Bang (lee·OO BAHNG) • Han Wudi (HAHN WOO·DEE) Building Your Vocabulary • acupuncture (A·kyuh·PUHNGK·chuhr) The Qin and Han Dynasties Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Determining Cause and Effect Complete a diagram like the one on page 240 of your textbook showing the inventions of the Han dynasty and the resulting impact on society. The Qin and Han Dynasties Emperor Qin Shihuangdi • Qin was a ruler of a local state during the Zhou dynasty. • He gradually took over neighboring states and declared himself Qin Shihuangdi, or First Qin Emperor. • Qin’s rule was based on legalism. • Qin abolished the officials’ authority to pass their posts on to their sons. (pages 241–242) The Qin and Han Dynasties Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (cont.) • He became the only person authorized to fill empty posts. • Qin united China, created one type of currency, ordered the building of roads and buildings, and connected the Chang Jiang to central China by canal. (pages 241–242) The Qin and Han Dynasties Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (cont.) • The Great Wall of China was built to protect the Chinese from the Xiongnu, a nomadic people living north of China. • Chinese people believed Qin Shihuangdi was a harsh ruler, and they overthrew his dynasty after his death. (pages 241–242) The Qin and Han Dynasties What are some examples of Qin Shihuangdi’s cruelty in ruling his people? Qin punished or killed anyone who opposed him. He forced farmers to leave their farms to build the Great Wall of China. He also burned scholars’ writing. The Qin and Han Dynasties The Han Dynasty • Liu Bang founded the Han dynasty in 202 B.C. • Civil service examinations began when Han Wudi started testing potential government employees. (pages 244–246) The Qin and Han Dynasties The Han Dynasty (cont.) • Students prepared for many years to take the exams. • The population tripled during the Han dynasty. • Farmers had to divide their land among more and more sons, which left them with very little land. • Farmers sold their land to aristocrats and became tenant farmers to survive. (pages 244–246) The Qin and Han Dynasties The Han Dynasty (cont.) • The Chinese invented many new products during the Han dynasty, such as the waterwheel, the rudder, drill bits, steel, and paper. • Chinese doctors began practicing acupuncture, the practice of easing pain by sticking needles into patients’ skin. (pages 244–246) The Qin and Han Dynasties How did the invention of the rudder change Chinese trade? With the rudder, the Chinese could move ships’ sails differently. Ships could now sail into the wind rather than with it. This meant Chinese ships could travel to the islands of Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. The Qin and Han Dynasties The Silk Road • Silk was the most valuable trade product. • The Silk Road was an overland trade route extended from western China to southwest Asia. (pages 246–247) The Qin and Han Dynasties What empire had General Zhang Qian encountered during his 13year trip west and how did he describe it upon his return? He had visited the Roman Empire and described the large cities with people wearing embroidered clothes and driving chariots. The Qin and Han Dynasties Major Changes in China • Buddhism spread from India to China. • The Han dynasty fell after wars, rebellions, and plots against the emperor. • Civil war began, and nomads invaded the country before the government collapsed. • Buddhism helped people cope with the chaotic times. (page 248) The Qin and Han Dynasties How did Buddhism become popular in China? First, merchants from India brought Buddhism to China. During the unrest of the fall of the Han dynasty, people found comfort in the teachings of Buddhism, and more people began practicing the Buddhist religion. The Qin and Han Dynasties Why did Qin Shihuangdi have the Great Wall built? to keep out the Xiongnu The Qin and Han Dynasties What were civil service examinations and why were they created? Civil service examinations were long, difficult tests used to qualify people for jobs in the government bureaucracy. They were used to find the best and most talented people. The Qin and Han Dynasties Geography Skills What barriers did merchants who used the Silk Road have to cross? mountains, deserts, seas, oceans, and harsh terrain The Qin and Han Dynasties Explain How did Qin Shihuangdi make China’s central government stronger? He appointed censors who made sure that government officials did their jobs. He also appointed and dismissed aristocrats who ran the provinces rather than allowing their positions to be hereditary. The Qin and Han Dynasties Analyze Why did the Qin dynasty fall? Because Qin Shihuangdi was such a ruthless ruler, his dynasty was overthrown by unhappy subjects soon after his death. The Qin and Han Dynasties Descriptive Writing Zhang Qian wrote that Romans had short hair, wore embroidered clothes, and rode in chariots. Name three things that he might have written about people in the United States after seeing them for the first time. Answers will vary. The Qin and Han Dynasties Make a list of developments you consider positive and developments you consider harmful or negative from the era of the Qin and Han dynasties. Early China Section 1: China’s First Civilizations Focusing on the Main Ideas • Rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape China’s civilization. • Rulers known as the Shang became powerful because they controlled land and had strong armies. • Chinese rulers claimed that the Mandate of Heaven gave them the right to rule. Early China Section 2: Life in Ancient China Focusing on the Main Ideas • Chinese society had three main social classes: landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants. • Three Chinese philosophies, Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism, grew out of a need for order. Early China Section 3: The Qin and Han Dynasties Focusing on the Main Ideas • Qin Shihuangdi used harsh methods to unify and defend China. • Developments during the Han dynasty improved life for all Chinese. • The Silk Road carried Chinese goods as far as Greece and Rome. • Unrest in China helped Buddhism to spread. Early China Review Vocabulary Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. __ D 1. right to command A 2. line of rulers in the __ same family __ B 3. upper class whose wealth is based on land __ I 4. the ideas of ___ included a duty to participate in government C 5. appointed government __ officials A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. dynasty aristocrat bureaucracy mandate social class filial piety acupuncture Daoism Confucianism Early China Review Vocabulary Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. __ F 6. head of family honored by other members G 7. medical treatment __ using thin needles __ E 8. people with a similar position in society __ H 9. the teachings of Laozi are the basis of ___ A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. dynasty aristocrat bureaucracy mandate social class filial piety acupuncture Daoism Confucianism Early China Review Main Ideas Section 1 China’s First Civilizations What geographical features shaped China’s civilizations? rivers, mountains, and deserts Early China Review Main Ideas Section 1 China’s First Civilizations Why did the Shang rulers become powerful? They controlled land and had strong armies. Early China Review Main Ideas Section 2 Life in Ancient China What were the three main classes in Chinese society? landowning aristocrats, farmers and merchants Early China Review Main Ideas Section 2 Life in Ancient China Identify three Chinese philosophies and the reason they emerged. Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism grew out of a need for order. Early China Review Main Ideas Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties How did developments during the Han dynasty affect the Chinese people? Their lives were improved. Early China Review Main Ideas Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties What was the purpose of the Silk Road? to carry Chinese goods to other areas—as far as Greece and Rome Early China Contrast How is the ancient Chinese writing system different from cuneiform and hieroglyphic writing? The Chinese system used pictographs and ideographs, while cuneiform and hieroglyphics used markings, forms, and some pictures. The Chinese system is still in use, but cuneiform and hieroglyphics were replaced by systems based on speech sounds. Early China Describe How did Shang artisans create bronze urns? They made clay molds in several sections, worked detailed designs into the clay, fit the pieces of the mold together, poured in molten bronze, and removed the mold after the bronze had cooled. Early China Analyze How is Daoism the opposite of Confucianism in some ways? Daoism teaches that people should try to be in harmony with the world; Confucianism teaches that people should work to change and improve the world. Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 7-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com Maps The Geography of China Shang Empire Zhou Empire Qin and Han Empires 221 B.C.–A.D. 220 Trading in the Ancient World Charts Chinese Numbering System Chinese Philosophers Four Chinese Dynasties Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Click the map to view an interactive version. Click the map to view an interactive version. China’s First Civilizations The Qinling Mountains stretch from west to east and form the geographic line between north and south China. Life in Ancient China Taoists believe the only acceptable time to inflict harm on another living creature is in self-defense. The Qin and Han Dynasties The Great Wall of China stretches more than 4,000 miles from east to west across China. Today, sections of the Great Wall are deteriorating from natural erosion. Reading Social Studies Learn It! Headings and Punctuation As you read this chapter, pay attention to bold headings and punctuation. They are used by authors to help you better understand what you are reading. Look at the heading on page 235 of your textbook, Chinese Thinkers. By putting these words in red, the author lets you know, even before you begin reading, that this part of the chapter is about famous thinkers in Chinese history. Paying attention to punctuation marks also can help you understand the text. Look at the punctuation marks in the paragraph on the next slide. Reading Social Studies Words are indented to show where a new paragraph and a new idea begin To Confucius, the best way to behave was similar to an idea known as the Golden Rule: “Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.” —from page 236 A colon (:) tells you that the words that follow are an illustration or an explanation of the first part of the sentence. Quotation marks have several uses. Here they are used to set off words taken from another source. Reading Social Studies Practice It! Punctuation Clues Look at the heading and punctuation in the paragraph from Chapter 7 on page 223 of your textbook and answer the following questions. • Based on the heading, what do you think this section will be about? How the Zhou empire came to an end. Reading Social Studies Practice It! Punctuation Clues Look at the heading and punctuation in the paragraph from Chapter 7 on page 223 of your textbook and answer the following questions. • Why do you think the phrase “Period of the Warring States” is in quotation marks? It is the title of a period in history. • How will you know when a new paragraph begins? There will be an indented line or new heading. Early China Introduction China’s First Civilizations Life in Ancient China The Qin and Han Dynasties Focus on Everyday Life The Role of Women Zheng Zhenxiang was China’s first female archaeologist. In 1976 she found the tomb of Fu Hao, China’s first female general. In the tomb were more than 2,000 artifacts from the Shang dynasty, including weapons, bronze vessels, jade objects, and bones with Chinese characters carved on them. Fu Hao, the wife of King Wu Ding, was given a royal burial. She was famous for her strength, martial arts skills, and military strategies. She often helped her husband defeat their enemies on the battlefield. Fu Hao was the first female in China’s history to receive the highest military rank. Her tomb and its artifacts reveal the grand civilization of China’s Shang dynasty. During this period, the Chinese developed writing, a calendar, and musical instruments. Connecting to the Past 1. What was Fu Hao famous for during her life? She was famous for her strength, martial arts skills, and military strategies. 2. Describe what the artifacts found in Fu Hao’s tomb might reveal about life during that time? The Shang dynasty was a sophisticated civilization, with bronze technology, writing, a calendar, and musical instruments. Focus on Everyday Life Chinese Farming Farmers in ancient China had to find ways to grow enough food to feed their population. It was often difficult because of the dry mountainous land. Over centuries, farmers learned to cut terraces—flat areas, like a series of deep steps—into the mountain slopes. Terraces made more land available for farming and kept the soil from eroding, or wearing away. Early farmers also used the terraces as a way to irrigate their crops. As rain fell, it flowed down from one terrace to the next, watering the crops. This method of farming, called terrace farming, is still used in China today. Farmers in ancient China were the first to use insects to protect their crops from damage by other insects. As early as A.D. 304, Chinese farmers used ants to prevent other insects from damaging their citrus fruit trees. They also used frogs and birds for pest control. Connecting to the Past 1. How did farmers in ancient China increase the amount of productive farmland? They built terraces into the mountain slopes. 2. What three farming methods helped farmers in ancient China grow more food? terrace farming, irrigation, and pest control Confucius 551- 479 B.C. Qin Shihuangdi c. 259-210 B.C. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 7–1 Chapter 7 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 7–2 Chapter 7 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 7–3 Chapter 7 To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Menu button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, Daily Focus Transparencies, and others are located on the left side of the relevant slides. End of Custom Shows This slide is intentionally blank.