Present Perfect

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Grammar lesson 2
Present Perfect simple/ Past Simple
Present Perfect simple/Continuous
Present Perfect / Past Perfect
Present Perfect/ Past Simple
The company relocated in 2008 in order to try and cut
costs.
●
The company has moved to another country where the
cost of production is lower.
●
Present Perfect/ Past Simple
The company relocated in 2008 in order to try and cut
costs.
●
used for finished action in past
The company has moved to another country where the
cost of production is lower.
●
used for unfinished action where result is still true
in the present
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Last year only 18% of US consumers………………a leading
department store. (to visit)
The value of most large companies………………considerably in
the period between 2000 and 2010 (to fall)
We ………………a lot of changes since 2003 (to make)
Mike works for MV. He ………………with the company for three
years now. (to be)
Now most companies ………………into financial difficulties due to
globalisation. (to run)
In the old days companies ……………… slowly. (To grow)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Last year only 18% of US consumers visited a leading
department store.
The value of most large companies fell considerably in the period
between 2000 and 2010
We have made a lot of changes since 2003
Mike works for MV. He has been with the company for three
years now.
Now most companies have run into financial difficulties due to
globalisation.
In the old days companies grew slowly. (To grow)
Past Simple
Last year only 18% of US consumers visited a leading
department store. (to visit)
●
●
In the old days companies grew slowly. (To grow)
The value of most large companies fell considerably in
the period between 2000 and 2010 (to fall)
●
We use the past simple for actions at a particular point
in the past, for finished, definite time.
Present Perfect
We have made a lot of changes since 2003
●
Mike works for MV. He has been with the company for three
years now.
●
Now most companies have run into financial difficulties due to
globalisation.
●
We use present perfect for actions linking present to a point in
past.
●
Past Simple/ present perfect?
Action which refers to recent or unfinished time.
●
Action which refers to finished time. (to talk about things that
belong to past)
●
To talk about things at specific time in past.
●
To talk about something that started in past and continues now
using for/since.
●
To talk about past using for when activity is finished
●
Past Simple/ present perfect?
Action which refers to recent or unfinished time.
●
Action which refers to finished time. (to talk about things that
belong to past)
●
To talk about things at specific time in past.
●
To talk about something that started in past and continues now
using for/since.
●
To talk about past using for when activity is finished
●
To talk about achievements
The last twelve months have been very successful for Wilcox
International.
In the last twelve months what has happened?
- We have set up a subsidiary in Germany
- we have built 200 offices for eighty different clients.
- we have opened our first sales office in China.
-
Turnover from our foreign operations has risen/gone up
-
(Turnover has not/hasn’t gone up in the UK)
Time markers
Past simple/ present perfect/ both
●
6 months Ago
●
Already /just
●
Since
●
For
●
Yesterday
●
Last week, month...
●
Never
●
On Tuesday
●
Ever
●
In recent years
●
In 2005
●
8 April
●
yet
Time markers
Past simple/ present perfect/ both
●
6 months ago
●
Already, just
●
Since
●
For
●
Yesterday
●
Last week, month, year...
●
Never, ever
●
On Tuesday
●
This week
●
In recent years…
●
In 2005
●
8 April
●
Yet
●
Recently (usually use
with present perfect at
the end of the
sentences.)
When do we use the adverbs yet and
already/just
●
With questions?
with negatives?
with positives?
Present perfect/past simple?
Things……..(improve) considerably since we…….(move) from
Shatin to China. In 2000 we ……(buy) the international operations
of our partner company and we now do business in more than 30
countries.
In recent years we …..(expand) our product range and we …….
(carved out) a sizeable niche in the same market as Benetton and
Zara.
Last year we …..(have) our fifth consecutive year of growth with
98 million dollars in net profit and in january of this year
we….(deliver) the first retail stock to be included in Hong Kong’s
index.
A lot of change ……….(take) place recently. This is because last
year most of our sales…(come) from the Asian market. So, in
January this year, we ……(decide) to try and break into the US
market. Just recently, we……(enter) into negotiations with
Macey’s department stores.
Our company so far this year ….(prosper) and that is down to all
your hard work.
Present perfect/past simple?
Things have improved considerably since we moved from Shatin
to China. In 2000 we bought the international operations of our
partner company and we now do business in more than 30
countries.
In recent years we have expanded our product range and we
have carved out a sizeable niche in the same market as Benetton
and Zara.
Last year we had our fifth consecutive year of growth with 98
million dollars in net profit and in january of this year we delivered
the first retail stock to be included in Hong Kong’s index.
A lot of change has taken place recently. This is because last
year most of our sales came from the Asian market. So, in
January this year, we decided to try and break into the US
market. Just recently, we have entered into negotiations with
Macey’s department stores.
Our company has so far this year has prospered and that is
down to all your hard work.
When do we use the adverbs yet and
already/just?
●
With questions?
with negatives?
with positives?
yet
yet
already/just
Put yet or already in these sentences:
●
A) I’ve spoken to him about the meeting.
●
B) We haven’t booked the meeting room.
●
●
C) We plan to close the factory, but we haven’t
closed it.
D) Have you finished the report?
Put yet or already in these sentences:
●
●
●
●
A) I’ve already spoken to him about the
meeting.
B) We haven’t booked the meeting room yet.
C) We plan to close the factory, but we haven’t
closed it yet.
D) Have you finished the report yet?
I have worked for UBS for three years
I worked at UBS for three years when I lived
abroad after University.
Rebecca has been with our organisation for 5 years.
a) and she did a great job.
b) and she is doing a great job.
His hard work really paid off a) he was promoted to Chief Adviser
b) he has been promoted to Chief Adviser
There have been some serious problems with the merger.
a) but we proceeded with it anyway
b) but we have proceeded with it anyway
How long have you worked as Financial Adviser
a) for your current employer?
b) before you came Financial Advisor?
KEY
Rebecca has been with our organisation for 5 years.
a) and she did a great job. NO
b) and she is doing a great job. YES
His hard work really paid off a) he was promoted to Chief Adviser YES
b) he has been promoted to Chief Adviser NO
There have been some serious problems with the merger.
a) but we proceeded with it anyway NO
b) but we have proceeded with it anyway YES
How long have you worked as Financial Adviser
a) for your current employer YES
b) before you came Financial Advisor? NO
Profits continued to fall for several years.
●
a) profits are still falling
b) profits fell in the past, but now the situation has changed.
Recent job cuts have caused staff to feel demotivated.
●
a) staff are now feeling demotivated
b) staff felt demotivated in the past, but now feel differently
The company has stayed ahead of its competitors for 7 years
●
a) It is still ahead of its competitors
b) It is no longer ahead of its competitiors
Jean has been a member of the design team since 2001.
●
a) Jean is still a member of the design team
b) Jean is no longer a member of the design team
Profits continued to fall for several years.
●
a) profits are still falling NO
b) profits fell in the past, but now the situation has changed. YES
Recent job cuts have caused staff to feel demotivated.
●
a) staff are now feeling demotivated YES
b) staff felt demotivated in the past, but now feel differently
The company has stayed ahead of its competitors for 7 years
●
a) It is still ahead of its competitors YES
b) It is no longer ahead of its competitiors
Jean has been a member of the design team since 2001.
●
a) Jean is still a member of the design team YES
b) Jean is no longer a member of the design team
Present Perfect Simple/
Present Perfect Continuous
Present perfect simple/continuous
Which tense is used to talk about a past CONDITION or
SITUATION (Non action verbs)
that began in past and continues into present?
Eg: know, have, be, like
Which tense is used to talk about an ACTION that began
in the past and continues into the present?
Eg: study
Present perfect simple/continuous
With non action verbs the Present Perfect Simple is used
to talk about a past CONDITION or SITUATION
that began in past and continues into present.
Eg: know, have, be, like
With action verbs the Continuous form is usually used to
talk about an ACTION that began in the past and
continues into the present?
Eg: study, write, wait, sing, phone
Present perfect Continuous also used for:
Competition has been affecting a lot of companies
recently.
●
For repeated actions (with all day, recently...)
eg: companies have been merging or closing.
With action verbs which started in past + still
happening now.
●
eg: I have been working for this company for 10
years now.
●
Continuous actions just finished:
eg: I have been interviewing people for hours. Now I need
a break.
Difference in meaning?
●
I have worked for this company for ten years.
and
●
I have been working for this company for ten
years.
Difference in meaning?
●
●
I have worked for this company for ten years.
I have been working for this company for ten
years.
In this case there is no real difference
●
Both forms are acceptable: Some verbs can
express both action and state conditions
How long have you been working?
Or
How long have you worked?
Therefore…
●
Continuous form: emphasizes continuation of an action
●
Simple form: emphasizes the completion of an action
State verbs = use simple form
• Verbs of EMOTION:
Like/hate/love/prefer/want/wish/detest/fear
• Verbs of THINKING (cognition)
Believe/doubt/guess/imagine/think(opinion)/recognise/
remember/understand/mean//know/realise/feel/ suppose/suspect
• Verbs of the SENSES
Hear/see/taste/smell/sound/feel/look/appear/seem/notice/
look like/
• Verbs used to describe THINGS and their QUALITIES
Contain/be/hold/measure/weigh/have/carry/permit/allow/ enable/consist
of/involve/depend on/include/cost/mean
• Verbs expressing Possession
Belong to/ own/possess/owe/have (got)
• The verbs: «to be» , «to exist», «to matter» and «to mean» don’t usually take the
continuous form.
Present Perfect Simple
and
Past Perfect
Present perfect/past perfect
They had hoped to organise a reception for their visitors,
but it didn't come off. (hope)
●
They say they.........a message, but there's definitely
nothing on my answering machine. I …..several times
already (leave/check)
●
The manager is very upset as he........outvoted at the
elections. (be)
●
We......always.......ahead of our rivals, and we outstripped
them again in 1995.(be)
●
The new type series........really......, but then they were all
recalled after complaints (take off)
●
She......me the low-down on the merger, so I feel well
prepared for the meeting. (give)
●
(KEY) Present perfect/past perfect
They had hoped to organise a reception for their visitors,
but it didn't come off. (hope)
●
They say they had left a message, but there's definitely
nothing on my answering machine. I have already
checked several times (leave/check)
●
The manager is very upset as he has been outvoted at
the elections. (be)
●
We had always been ahead of our rivals, and we
outstripped them again in 1995.(be)
●
The new series had really taken off but then they were all
replaced after many complaints (take off)
●
She has given me the low-down on the merger, so I feel
well prepared for the meeting. (give)
●
Use Past perfect
match example and rule
●
To talk about an action
that began in the past and
continued up to another
point in the past.
●
●
●
To talk about long
repeated past action
which had a consequence
or result in past
Eg: I was tired because I
had been working very
hard
Eg: I had been working
on the project for two
months before we had
any success.
Use Past perfect (key)
match example and rule
●
●
To talk about an action
that began in the past and
continued up to another
point in the past.
To talk about long
repeated past action
which had a consequence
or result in past
●
●
Eg: I had been working
on the project for two
months before we had
any success.
Eg: I was tired because I
had been working very
hard
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