Communication/Social Networking Processes and Systems

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MIS 2000
Communication/Social
Networking Processes &
Systems
Updated 2014
1
Outline
Communication concepts
Organizational communication (characteristics)
Communication processes and social networks
Communication Systems & Technologies
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Communication Concept and System
• Communication is the process of creating, exchanging and interpreting
messages.
Communication actors
Sender
Receiver
Sender
Communication
System
Tell
message
Receive
message
Tell
message
On Sender side:
Accept input +
Modify signal
Interpret
Message/Get
Informed
Transfer signal
over network
Receiver
Listen to
message
Interpret
Message/Get
Informed
On Receiver side:
Receive signal +
Demodify
Face-to-face form of
oral communication
Mediated form of oral
communication (e.g., telephone)
• Interpretation of messages by the receiver is critical for effective
communication.
3
Communication System
Sender
Communication
System
Write + Format
message
On Sender side:
Record input +
Enable formatting
Send
message
Prepare
packets
Transfer packets
over network
Receiver
Receive
message
Interpret
Message/Get
Informed
On Receiver side:
Receive packets
A communication system
consists of:
1. sending device
2. receiving device
3. network connecting 1&2
Each part has hardware and
software.
The purpose of CS is recording
and transferring of messages.
Mediated written communication
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Organizational Communication (OC)
OC is different than communication in family, among friends and other informal
situations.
OC is a component of management processes. It is used for:
(a) Announcing news
(b) Ordering
(c) Reporting to superiors (lines of reporting support hierarchy in an
organization).
One-Way Communication (sequential interdependence)
Top
Hierarchy
Bottom
Receiver
Sender
Receiver
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Organizational Communication (OC)
OC among professionals is used for:
(a) Discussing issues in decision making (meetings)
(b) Sharing professional knowledge
(c) Collaborating in executing work inside and
outside of an organization.
All organization members also communicate in order to
socialize (expanding relationships beyond work-related
domain, bonding)
Sender
Receiver
Receiver
Sender
Two-Way Communication
(reciprocal interdependence)
OC is driven by rules on content*, format (reports, sales documents),
timing (reporting dates).
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Organizational Communication (OC)
Organizational culture also influences OC (acceptable/
“politically correct” language; who talks to whom*)
OC can be face-to-face and mediated by communication
systems (email, electronic bulletin boards, chat, phone, fax,
social media, blogs)
If OC is mediated, it is automatically documented (the content
becomes part of organizational documentation).
OC takes place in an organization and outside of it (partnering,
supply chain, marketing).
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Communication Processes and Social Networks
A social network (SN) is informal social gathering based on regular communication.
SN exists if:
a) messages flow regularly (with a certain frequency) AND
b) communication actors value the messages (they are important).
The fact that a communication system (like social media) is available to people
does not mean that social networks are automatically created.*
Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIN etc. are social media (many communication and other
IS put together) around which social networks can arise.
central
position (hub)
Centralized Network
Communication lines pass via
hub, possibility of control
(e.g., ‘popular’ people in networks created
around Facebook)
Peer Network
All-to-all communication,
no central control
(e.g., professionals in LinkedIn)
• Both centralized and peer networks can be on any social media.
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Electronic Information/Communication
Technologies and Systems*
Classical:
Telegraph, Teletype, Telex (19 c.-mid 20th c.)
Landline telephone (since end of 19th c.)
Facsimile (fax) (sine 19th c.; several generations of technology)
Newer:
electronic bulletin boards (since 1980s)
electronic mail (email) (since 1980s)
cellular phone (since 1970s) and smart phone**
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Social Media
Named in contrast to classical media for mass informing &
entertainment (TV, radio, press).
1) Special Websites hosting many communication and other IS
for supporting communities formed around shared interests –
Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn
Deploy various communication systems:
text messaging (chat), electronic bulletin boards (posting—
responses; “writing on the wall” in Facebook)
Deploy other systems as well (e.g., digital photo album)
Uses: Job market, communication among professionals
(LinkedIn), Marketing, Public Relations*
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Social Media
2) Twitter – Internet-based system that connects to cell phone
networks and is used for one-way communication via short text
messages.
Uses: public relations
(e.g., Canadian Premier), advertising (e.g., North Face)
Issues with social media:
Employers check your Facebook pages (for good and bad!)
Who is the receiver of your message? (control issue)
Privacy (many issues; Twitter company's privacy rules)*
Accuracy, copyright (Twitter company's terms of use)
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Blog
3) Blog (from words “Web log”) is a communication system for
broadcasting through the Internet.
Used in organizations and on the Internet to communicate
opinions and knowledge of specialists. Blog is also a KWS
(covered before).
Also used for marketing purposes (e.g., broadcasting news to
customers, partners) (Winnipeg Airport)
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Features:
easy creation and posting of text
readers can post questions or not
summarizing text and sending news to other websites
(“syndication”)
Issues:
Trade secret disclosure
Accuracy
Time & other trade-offs *
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Internet
The Internet is a global network of networks (inter-network) created via special
software and hardware (routers, modems).
We say that “a computer or local networks supporting TCP/IP are on the
Internet”.
A message is routed through the Internet in packets* via different routes, then
reassembled at the receiving point. The makes Internet flexible, fast, and
economical.
Router is a device or specialized computer that scans the downstream network
and directs incoming packages.
7
3
5
6
2
1
4
Packets of one message (A, B) travel via different routes to avoid
congestion and increase speed.
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Internet - TCP/IP
Internet technology has 4 “layers” that work together both on
the sender and receiver side (see Note):
Sender
Receiver
Email (SMTP),
file transfer (FTP,
HTTP)
TCP
IP
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Internet - How It Works
SMTP to TCP:
“Take this message
and send it to this
email address”.
TCP Breaks message into
packets and passes these
to IP.
IP scans receiving Internet
address and routers on the
way to receiver. IP puts
receiving address on each
packet and passes them to
Network.
Network physically puts
packets onto the communication medium.
SENDER
RECEIVER
SMTP restores original format
of message and presents it.
Put packets back together
in proper orders and checks
sum of data received vs.
sum sent.
Accepts packets and
reports back to routers.
Gets packets off communication medium.
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Voice over IP (VoIP)
New Internet protocol for using Internet
as a telephone system (voice and text &
video; example: Skype)
Computers act as a phone or special VoIP
phones used
VoIP phone has an Internet address and
can act as Internet node anywhere
without changing its “number” (IP
address)
Big savings compared to classical phone
Information Systems for Management
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Wireless Networks
Use radio waves (as radio stations do) *
(1) WiFi (Wireless Fidelity)
Computers and cell phone with WiFi cards can connect to the
Internet that way**. Range: few dozens of meters
WiMAX version of this standard covers 50 km range (video on
virtual school in Somalia).
(2) Cell phone RF networks
Use radio frequency (RF) networks that manage signals across
the space organized into geometric shapes called “cells”.
- Each cell is covered by transmitters (send-receive devices).
- When a cell phone leaves a cell, control is transferred to a
transmitter in the entering cell. Internet access increasing.
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Summary 1/2
Communication is the process of creating, exchanging and interpreting
messages.
A communication system has a sending device, receiving device, and connecting
network.
Managers use OC for announcing, ordering, and reporting.
Professionals use OC for discussion, knowledge exchange, and collaboration.
OC is shaped by rules on content, format (reports, sales documents), timing
(reporting dates), and organizational culture.
OC can be face-to-face and mediated by communication technologies, inside
and outside an organization.
Social network is a grouping of people who communicate regularly and value
the messages exchanged. It can be peer, hierarchical, or flat.
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Summary 2/2
Social media are special websites and communication systems supporting
communities formed
around shared interests (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, blogs). Organizational
uses: marketing, public relations, HR.
Privacy, accuracy, copyright and trade secret protection are some of issues
social media have brought up.
The Internet is a global network of networks created by special software and
hardware. TCP/IP is the software with four layers, which connects different
networks into the Internet. A message is routed through the Internet in packets,
and each of the TCP/IP layers plays a role.
Voice over IP (VoIP) is an Internet protocol (software layer) for using Internet
as a telephone system. Creates big savings.
Wireless networks use radio waves for transfer of messages (WiFi, cell phone).
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