Updated 2014 1
Communication concepts Organizational communication (characteristics) Communication processes and social networks Communication Systems & Technologies 2
• Communication is the process of creating, exchanging and interpreting messages. Communication actors Sender Receiver Sender Communication System Receiver Tell message Receive message Tell message On Sender side: Accept input + Modify signal Listen to message Interpret Message/Get Informed Transfer signal over network Interpret Message/Get Informed On Receiver side: Receive signal + Demodify Face-to-face form of oral communication Mediated form of oral communication (e.g., telephone) • Interpretation of messages by the receiver is critical for effective communication.
Sender Communication System Receiver Write + Format message Send message On Sender side: Record input + Enable formatting Prepare packets Transfer packets over network On Receiver side: Receive packets Receive message Interpret Message/Get Informed A communication system consists of: 1. sending device 2. receiving device 3. network connecting 1&2 Each part has hardware and software.
The purpose of CS is recording and transferring of messages.
Mediated written communication 4
OC is different than communication in family, among friends and other informal situations.
OC is a component of management processes. It is used for: (a) Announcing news (b) Ordering (c) Reporting to superiors (lines of reporting support hierarchy in an organization).
One-Way Communication (sequential interdependence) Top Hierarchy Receiver Bottom Sender Receiver 5
OC among professionals is used for: (a) Discussing issues in decision making (meetings) (b) Sharing professional knowledge outside of an organization.
Sender Receiver Receiver Sender (c) Collaborating in executing work inside and Two-Way Communication (reciprocal interdependence) All organization members also communicate in order to socialize (expanding relationships beyond work-related domain, bonding) OC is driven by rules on content*, format (reports, sales documents), timing (reporting dates).
Organizational culture also influences OC (acceptable/ “politically correct” language; who talks to whom*) OC can be face-to-face and mediated by communication systems (email, electronic bulletin boards, chat, phone, fax, social media, blogs) If OC is mediated, it is automatically
becomes part of organizational documentation). (the content OC takes place in an organization and outside of it (partnering, supply chain, marketing).
A social network (SN) is informal social gathering based on regular communication. SN exists if: a) messages flow regularly (with a certain frequency) AND b) communication actors value the messages (they are important).
The fact that a communication system (like social media) is available to people does not mean that social networks are automatically created.* Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIN etc. are social media (many communication and other IS put together) around which social networks can arise.
central position (hub) Centralized Network Communication lines pass via hub, possibility of control (e.g., ‘popular’ people in networks created around Facebook) Peer Network All-to-all communication, no central control (e.g., professionals in LinkedIn) • Both centralized and peer networks can be on any social media.
Classical: Telegraph, Teletype, Telex (19 c.-mid 20 th c.) Landline telephone (since end of 19 th Facsimile (fax) (sine 19 th c.) c.; several generations of technology) Newer: electronic bulletin boards (since 1980s) electronic mail (email) (since 1980s) cellular phone (since 1970s) and smart phone** 9
Named in contrast to classical media for mass informing & entertainment (TV, radio, press).
1) Special Websites hosting many communication and other IS for supporting communities formed around shared interests – Facebook , MySpace , LinkedIn Deploy various communication systems: text messaging (chat), electronic bulletin boards (posting— responses; “writing on the wall” in Facebook) Deploy other systems as well (e.g., digital photo album) Uses: Job market, communication among professionals (LinkedIn), Marketing, Public Relations* 10
3) Blog (from words “Web log”) is a communication system for broadcasting through the Internet. Used in organizations and on the Internet to communicate opinions and knowledge of specialists. Blog is also a (covered before).
Also used for marketing purposes (e.g., broadcasting news to customers, partners) ( Winnipeg Airport ) 12
Features: easy creation and posting of text readers can post questions or not summarizing text and sending news to other websites (“syndication”) Issues: Trade secret disclosure Accuracy Time & other trade-offs * 13
The Internet is a global network of networks (inter-network) created via special software and hardware (routers, modems). We say that “a computer or local networks supporting TCP/IP Internet”.
are on the A message is routed through the Internet in packets* via different routes, then reassembled at the receiving point. The makes Internet flexible, fast, and economical.
Router is a device or specialized computer that scans the downstream network and directs incoming packages.
7 3 2 5 6 1 4
Packets of one message (A, B) travel via different routes to avoid congestion and increase speed.
Internet technology has 4 “layers” that work together both on the sender and receiver side (see Note):
Sender Receiver Email (SMTP), file transfer (FTP, HTTP) TCP IP
SMTP to TCP: “Take this message and send it to this email address”.
TCP Breaks message into packets and passes these to IP.
IP scans receiving Internet address and routers on the way to receiver. IP puts receiving address on each packet and passes them to Network.
Network physically puts packets onto the com munication medium.
SENDER RECEIVER SMTP restores original format of message and presents it. Put packets back together in proper orders and checks sum of data received vs. sum sent.
Accepts packets and reports back to routers.
Gets packets off com munication medium.
New Internet protocol for using Internet as a telephone system (voice and text & video; example: Skype) Computers act as a phone or special VoIP phones used VoIP phone has an Internet address and can act as Internet node anywhere without changing its “number” (IP address) Big savings compared to classical phone Information Systems for Management 17
Use radio waves (as radio stations do) * (1) WiFi (Wireless Fidelity) Computers and cell phone with WiFi cards can connect to the Internet that way**. Range: few dozens of meters WiMAX version of this standard covers 50 km range (video on virtual school in Somalia).
(2) Cell phone RF networks Use radio frequency (RF) networks that manage signals across the space organized into geometric shapes called “cells”. - Each cell is covered by transmitters (send-receive devices). - When a cell phone leaves a cell, control is transferred to a transmitter in the entering cell. Internet access increasing.
Communication is the process of creating, exchanging and interpreting messages. A communication system has a sending device, receiving device, and connecting network.
Managers use OC for announcing, ordering, and reporting. Professionals use OC for discussion, knowledge exchange, and collaboration.
OC is shaped by rules on content, format (reports, sales documents), timing (reporting dates), and organizational culture.
OC can be face-to-face and mediated by communication technologies, inside and outside an organization.
Social network is a grouping of people who communicate regularly and value the messages exchanged. It can be peer, hierarchical, or flat. 19
Social media are special websites and communication systems supporting communities formed around shared interests (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, blogs). Organizational uses: marketing, public relations, HR.
Privacy, accuracy, copyright and trade secret protection are some of issues social media have brought up.
The Internet is a global network of networks created by special software and hardware. TCP/IP is the software with four layers, which connects different networks into the Internet. A message is routed through the Internet in packets, and each of the TCP/IP layers plays a role.
Voice over IP (VoIP) is an Internet protocol (software layer) for using Internet as a telephone system. Creates big savings.
Wireless networks use radio waves for transfer of messages (WiFi, cell phone). 20