Niredi ukufunda isiXhosa? You-ready to-learn Xhosa? Ewe! Yes! Siredi! We-ready! Evidence of Changing Xhosa (sign in Butterworth – eGcuwa) Grammar interlude – Pronouns (Subject Concords) I We NdiSi- You (singular) You (plural) UNi- He/She They U- (high tone) Ba- -redi bl/rel < Eng: -lungile READY p.110 Greater Dictionary of Xhosa Vol.3 (Fort Hare Lexicography Unit) Zama - #1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I am ready. ____________________ Are you ready? _________________ They are ready. _________________ Are they ready? _________________ She is ready. ____________________ Are we ready? ___________________ Zama - #1 answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I am ready. Ndiredi. Are you ready? Uredi? They are ready. Baredi. Are they ready? Baredi? She is ready. Uredi. Are we ready? Siredi? -rayithi bj/cop bl/rel < Eng: -chanekile RIGHT [also alright, OK, fine] p.109 Greater Dictionary of Xhosa Vol.3 (Fort Hare Lexicography Unit) Zama - #2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Are you alright? ____________________ They are right.______________________ Are we OK? _________________________ Are you (plural) OK? _________________ I am alright. ________________________ Are they OK? ______________________ Zama - #2 -answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Are you alright? They are right. Are we OK? Are you (plural) OK? I am alright. Are they OK? Urayithi? Barayithi. Sirayithi? Nirayithi? Ndirayithi. Barayithi? Pronunciation • C – suck spinach from behind top front teeth • Cima iradiyo! Switch off the radio! • Cima iTV! Switch off the TV! Ch (aspirated – puff of air) • Uredi ukuchama? Are you ready to pee? • Ndiredi ukuchama. I am ready to pee. The X click • Tongue touching side teeth – suck over it • Like getting a horse to move on • Ndiyaxolisa. I am sorry. • Siyaxolisa. We are sorry. Xh (aspirated – puff of air) • Ndiredi ukuthetha isiXhosa. I am ready to speak Xhosa. • Siredi ukuxhela. We are ready to slaughter. The Q click • Tongue pulled off roof of mouth (hard palate) • Like the sound of a champagne cork • Ndiyaqonda. I understand. • Niyaqonda? Do you (plural) understand? Qh (aspirated – puff of air) • Urayithi ukuqhuba? Are you OK to drive? • Barayithi ukuqhuba. They are OK to drive. The Rh consonant • As for Afrikaans “Gaan” • Ugqirha uthi ndirayithi. The doctor says I am OK. The Hl consonant • As for Welsh “Ll” (Notice to all residents.) • Hlala phantsi. Sit down. Pronounce 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Qhuba! Drive! Carry on! Cinga! Think! Xela! Tell! Xhela! Slaughter! Rholihlala Mandela Xolani Quwa Some useful Xhosa adjectives (apart from –redi and –rayithi) • • • • -seriyas -rongo -swit -fresh serious wrong sweet fresh Some more useful Xhosa adjectives • -lula easy • -nzima difficult • -mnandi nice • -shushu hot Some more useful pronouns • iEg. Ipassword irayithi. it (any THING) The password (it) is right. • ziEg. Iinamba zirongo. they (any THINGS) The numbers (they) are wrong. An extremely useful pronoun – KU• Ku- Indefinite IT (eg. It is nice, It is hot, It is easy, It is difficult) Yhu! Kushushu! Wow! It is hot! Yhu! Kumnandi! Wow! It is nice! Yhu! Kunzima! Wow! It is difficult! Yhu! Kuseriyas! Wow! It is serious! Zama - #3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. We are serious. It is easy. (indefinite “it”) They are sweet. (people) They are sweet. (things) You (plural) are fresh. You (singular) are serious. I am serious. Zama - #3 - answers 1. We are serious. 2. It is easy. 3. They are sweet. (people) 4. They are sweet. (things) 5. You (plural) are fresh. 6. You (singular) are serious. 7. I am serious. Siseriyas. Kulula. Baswit. Ziswit. Nifresh. Useriyas. Ndiseriyas. Zama #4 – Buza! Ask! 1. Are you serious? 2. Is it hot? (both indefinite and referring to a thing) 3. Is it difficult? (indefinite) 4. Is the braai ready? 5. Is the password wrong? 6. Is the number right? 7. Is she sweet? Zama #4 – Answers 1. Are you serious? Useriyas? 2. Is it hot? (both indefinite and referring to a thing) Kushushu? Ishushu? 3. Is it difficult? (indefinite) Kunzima? 4. Is (it) the braai ready? Ibraai iredi? 5. Is (it) the password wrong? Ipassword irongo? 6. Is (it) the number right? Inamba irayithi? 7. Is she sweet? Uswit? Making a negative • Ndi- Andi-+kho + adjective • Eg. Ndiredi. I am ready. Andikho redi. I am not ready. • Si- Asikho Asikho seriyas. We are not serious. • Ni- Anikho Anikho redi? Are you (plural) not ready? • Ba- Abakho Abakho rayithi. They are not OK. • Ku- Akukho Akukho lula. It is not easy. Zama #5 – Change into negative 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Kumnandi. It is nice. ________________ Bafresh. They are fresh. ______________ Ndirayithi. I am OK. __________________ Siredi. We are ready. _________________ Kunzima. It is difficult. ________________ Ziswit. They are sweet. ________________ Nirongo. You are wrong. _______________ Zama #5 – Change into negative answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Kumnandi. It is nice. Akukho mnandi. It is not nice. Bafresh. They are fresh. Abakho fresh. They are not fresh. Ndirayithi. I am OK. Andikho rayithi. I am not OK. Siredi. We are ready. Asikho redi. We are not ready. Kunzima. It is difficult. Akukho nzima. It is not difficult. Ziswit. They are sweet. Azikho swit. They are not sweet. Nirongo. You are wrong. Anikho rongo. You are not wrong. Making a negative with vowels • U- (you) Awu-+kho + adjective • Eg. Urayithi. You are right. Awukho rayithi. You are not right. • U- (s/he) AKAkho Akakho seriyas. He is not serious. • I- AYIkho Ayikho redi? Is it not ready? Zama #6 – Change into negative 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Iti imnandi. The tea is nice. ___________________ UJim urayithi. Jim is right. __________________ Wena uredi. You, you are ready. ________________ I-English inzima. English is difficult. _____________ Uswit. She is sweet. ________________________ Inamba irongo. The number is wrong. ____________ Zama #6 – Change into negative answers 1. 2. 3. 4. Iti imnandi. The tea is nice. Iti ayikho mnandi. UJim urayithi. Jim is right. UJim akakho rayithi. Wena uredi. You, you are ready. Wena awukho redi. I-English inzima. English is difficult. I-English ayikho nzima. 5. Uswit. She is sweet. Akakho swit. 6. Inamba irongo. The number is wrong. Inamba ayikho rongo. The number is not wrong. Injani iti? How is the tea? Imnandi! Unjani uJim? How is Jim? Shem, akakho rayithi. Shame, he is not OK. Future tense with adjectives Pronoun –ZOBA + adjective • Ndirayithi. I am OK. Ndizoba rayithi. I will be OK. • Kushushu. It is hot. Kuzoba sushu. It will be hot. • Kunzima. It is difficult. Kuzoba nzima. It will be difficult. Zama #7 – Change into future 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Iti imnandi. ___________________ UJim urayithi. __________________ Wena uredi?__________________ Siseriyas. _____________________ Bafresh. ______________________ Zama #7 – answers - iimpendulo 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Iti imnandi. Iti izoba mnandi. UJim urayithi. UJim uzoba rayithi. Wena uredi? Wena uzoba redi? Siseriyas. Sizoba seriyas. Bafresh. Bazoba fresh. Past tense with adjectives Prefix be- + adjective • Ndirayithi. I am OK. Bendirayithi. I was OK. • Kushushu. It is hot. Bekusushu. It was hot. • Kunzima. It is difficult. Bekunzima. It was difficult. Zama #8 – Change into past 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kumnandi. ___________________ Sirayithi._____________________ Niseriyas._____________________ Kulula. ________________________ Ndiredi. ________________________ Zama #8 – Change into past – answers - iimpendulo • • • • • Kumnandi. Bekumnandi. Sirayithi. Besirayithi. Niseriyas. Beniseriyas. Kulula. Bekulula. Ndiredi. Bendiredi. Xhosa verbs – without pronouns are commands! • • • • • • • Thatha! Take! Hamba! Go! Vula! Open! Bamba! Hold/Catch/Touch! Shopisha! Shop! Treyina! Train! Fowuna! Phone! Verbs with pronouns make sentences • Ndithatha iCD. I am taking a CD. • Ubamba ibhola. She is catching the ball. • Bavula ishop. They are opening the shop. Future and Past 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ndizothatha. I will take. Bendithatha. I was taking. Sizohamba. We will go. Besihamba. We were going. Nizovula. You will open. Benivula. You were opening. Ndizotreyina. I will train. Benditreyina. I was training. Xhosa nouns - THINGS • • • • • • • • ishop ividiyo iCD ipinabatha isirinji ifowuni ibhedi inantsika (thingy) Xhosa nouns - PEOPLE • • • • • • • umama utata usisi ubhuti uNaledi uAnn unantsika (Thingy-me-bob) Zama #9 – Translate 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Take the CD! I was opening the shop. Take the peanut butter! We will take the peanut butter. Will you take the phone? Take the phone! Zama #9 – Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Thatha iCD! Bendivula ishop. Thatha ipinabatha! Sizothatha ipinabatha. Uzothatha ifowuni? Thatha ifowuni!