Gunpowder Empires Three of the great empires of history—the Ottomans in Turkey, the Safavids in Persia, and the Mughals in India—emerged in the Muslim world between the 14th and the 18th centuries. As powerful societies moved to expand their empires, Turkish, Persian, Mongol, and Arab ways of life blended. The result was a flowering of Islamic culture that peaked in the 16th century. The rulers of all three great Muslim empires of this era based their authority on Islam. They based their power on strong armies, advanced technology, and loyal administrative officers. Ottoman Empire In 1453, the Ottomans attacked Constantinople & conquered the Byzantine Empire By the late 1600s, the Ottomans expanded into the Middle East, Northern Africa, & Eastern Europe Sultan Ottoman rulers were called sultans & they governed with absolute power Suleyman the Magnificent The greatest Ottoman sultan was Suleyman the Magnificent who came to power in 1520 Under Suleyman, Ottoman armies attacked Eastern Europe & the empire reached its height Suleyman’s greatest accomplishment was creating a stable gov’t for his empire He was known as “Suleyman the Lawgiver” because he created a law code that governed criminal & civil issues He created a simplified & fair tax system to raise money for his empire He granted freedom of worship to Christians & Jews living in the empire Janissaries The Ottoman army included 30,000 elite soldiers called janissaries who were slaves that were trained to be loyal to the government Safavid Empire Unlike the Ottomans who were Sunni Muslims, The Safavid Empire the Safavids believed in Shi’a Islam & strictly converted the people they conquered The Safavids were Turks living in Persia who built a powerful gunpowder army & created an empire in modern-day Iran Safavid rulers were called shahs, using the Persian title for king Shah Safavid rulers were called shahs, using the Persian title for king Shah Abbas The greatest ruler of the Safavid Empire was Shah Abbas who came to power in 1587 Abbas borrowed ideas from outside groups to improve the Safavid Empire He modeled Ottoman janissaries, used merit to employ gov’t workers, & introduced religious toleration which helped Safavids trade with European Christians Art flourished, especially carpets that blended Persian & European designs The Decline of the Safavid Empire Like the Ottomans, Shah Abbas blinded or killed his most capable sons in order to keep power As a result, weak leaders led to a rapid decline of the Safavid Empire While the Ottoman Empire lasted until 1922, the Safavid Empire fell in 1747 Mughal Empire Like the Ottomans & Safavids, the Mughals built a powerful army with guns & cannons The Mughals were Muslims who descended from Turks, Afghans, & Mongols living in central Asia Babur In 1494, Babur became king of the Mughals, expanded the army, & began invasions into India to create his empire Akbar the Great In 1556, Babur’s grandson Akbar became king of the Mughal Empire & expanded the empire into almost all of India Akbar was the greatest of all the Mughal rulers Akbar’s greatest achievement was cultural blending & religious toleration He held religious discussions with Hindu & Muslim scholars He ended the tax that non-Muslims were required to pay & created a fair & affordable tax system Because he was Muslim He married many ruling in a largely Hindu wives, among them region, Akbar allowed non- were Muslim, Hindu, Muslims to worship freely & Christian women Divine Faith The Divine Faith was an example of syncretism because it blended ideas from Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, & Zoroastrianism Akbar hoped the Divine Faith would end conflicts between Muslims & Hindus But, the Divine Faith never attracted many Muslim or Hindu converts…When Akbar died, so did the Divine Faith Taj Mahal The greatest example of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal which was built in 1631 by Shah Jahan Mughal architecture was known for blending of Hindu & Islamic designs Qing Dynasty In 1644, northern invaders from Manchuria conquered China & created the second foreign dynasty in Chinese history, the Qing Dynasty Manchus During this era of Manchu rule, China grew to its largest size by claiming Taiwan, central Asia, Mongolia, & Tibet Kangxi Kangxi was the first emperor to tour China & visit peasant villages But, Emperor Kangxi earned Chinese respect by keeping Confucian beliefs, lowering taxes, & restoring peace and prosperity to China Shinto Japan’s isolation gave rise to a unique Japanese culture, most specifically the Shinto religion Shinto is a polytheistic religion based on the respect of nature & ancestor worship Shinto worshipers believed in divine spirits called kami that live in nature The most important of the Shinto gods is the sun goddess who gave light to the world Japanese Feudalism By the mid-1000s, the imperial gov’t grew weak, regional landowners gained power, & Japan became lawless & dangerous As a result, Japan developed a feudal system Daimyo Farmers traded land to strong warlords called daimyo who offered protection Samurai Daimyo were served by loyal warriors called samurai Shogun In 1192, the first shogun was named by the emperor The emperor remained in place, but the shogun held real power & ruled as military dictators Shoguns’ power varied over time, but the pattern of gov’t controlled by a shogun lasted until 1867 Tokugawa Shogunate In 1603, Tokugawa became shogun of Japan, moved to capital to Edo (later called Tokyo), & restored gov’t & order to Japan Tokugawa ruled until 1615, but he created a line of succession called the Tokugawa Shogunate that ruled Japan until 1867 Isolationism Tokugawa shoguns decided to exclude foreign merchants & missionaries By 1639, Japan adopted a “closed country policy” & ended almost all foreign contacts Istanbul Sikhism A monotheistic religion founded in the Punjab region of India in the 15th century by Guru Nanak, and marked by rejection of idolatry and caste. Sikhism is the 5th largest religion in the world.