Gunpowder Qing Japan WW

Gunpowder Empires
Three of the great empires of history—the Ottomans in Turkey, the
Safavids in Persia, and the Mughals in India—emerged in the Muslim
world between the 14th and the 18th centuries. As powerful societies
moved to expand their empires, Turkish, Persian, Mongol, and Arab
ways of life blended. The result was a flowering of Islamic culture that
peaked in the 16th century. The rulers of all three great Muslim empires
of this era based their authority on Islam. They based their power on
strong armies, advanced technology, and loyal administrative officers.
Ottoman Empire
In 1453, the Ottomans attacked Constantinople &
conquered the Byzantine Empire
By the late 1600s, the Ottomans expanded into the
Middle East, Northern Africa, & Eastern Europe
Ottoman rulers were called sultans & they governed
with absolute power
Suleyman the Magnificent
The greatest Ottoman sultan
was Suleyman the
Magnificent who came to
power in 1520
Under Suleyman, Ottoman
armies attacked Eastern
Europe & the empire reached
its height
Suleyman’s greatest accomplishment was
creating a stable gov’t for his empire
He was known as
“Suleyman the Lawgiver”
because he created a
law code that governed
criminal & civil issues
He created a simplified &
fair tax system to raise
money for his empire
He granted freedom of
worship to Christians &
Jews living in the empire
The Ottoman army
included 30,000 elite
soldiers called
janissaries who were
slaves that were trained
to be loyal to the
Safavid Empire
Unlike the Ottomans
who were
Sunni Muslims,
The Safavid
the Safavids believed in Shi’a Islam & strictly
converted the people they conquered
The Safavids were Turks living
in Persia who built a powerful
gunpowder army & created
an empire in modern-day Iran
Safavid rulers
were called shahs,
using the Persian
title for king
Safavid rulers
were called shahs,
using the Persian
title for king
Shah Abbas
The greatest ruler of the Safavid Empire was
Shah Abbas who came to power in 1587
Abbas borrowed ideas from
outside groups to improve
the Safavid Empire
He modeled Ottoman
janissaries, used merit to
employ gov’t workers, &
introduced religious
toleration which helped
Safavids trade with
European Christians
Art flourished, especially
carpets that blended
Persian & European designs
The Decline of the Safavid Empire
Like the Ottomans,
Shah Abbas blinded
or killed his most
capable sons in
order to keep power
As a result, weak
leaders led to a
rapid decline of the
Safavid Empire
While the Ottoman
Empire lasted until
1922, the Safavid
Empire fell in 1747
Mughal Empire
Like the Ottomans &
Safavids, the Mughals built
a powerful army with guns
& cannons
The Mughals were Muslims
who descended from Turks,
Afghans, & Mongols living
in central Asia
In 1494, Babur became king of the Mughals,
expanded the army, & began invasions into India to
create his empire
Akbar the Great
In 1556, Babur’s grandson
Akbar became king of the Mughal Empire & expanded
the empire into almost all of India
Akbar was the greatest of all the Mughal rulers
Akbar’s greatest achievement
was cultural blending &
religious toleration
He held religious discussions
with Hindu & Muslim scholars
He ended the tax that
non-Muslims were required
to pay & created a fair &
affordable tax system
Because he was Muslim
He married many
ruling in a largely Hindu
wives, among them
region, Akbar allowed non- were Muslim, Hindu,
Muslims to worship freely
& Christian women
Divine Faith
The Divine Faith was an
example of syncretism because
it blended ideas from Islam,
Hinduism, Christianity, &
Akbar hoped the Divine Faith
would end conflicts between
Muslims & Hindus
But, the Divine Faith never
attracted many Muslim or
Hindu converts…When Akbar
died, so did the Divine Faith
Taj Mahal
The greatest example of Mughal architecture is the Taj
Mahal which was built in 1631 by Shah Jahan
Mughal architecture was known for blending of Hindu
& Islamic designs
Qing Dynasty
In 1644, northern invaders from Manchuria
conquered China & created the second foreign
dynasty in Chinese history, the Qing Dynasty
During this era of Manchu rule,
China grew to its largest size by claiming Taiwan,
central Asia, Mongolia, & Tibet
Kangxi was the first emperor to tour
China & visit peasant villages
But, Emperor Kangxi earned Chinese respect
by keeping Confucian beliefs, lowering taxes,
& restoring peace and prosperity to China
Japan’s isolation gave rise to a unique Japanese
culture, most specifically the Shinto religion
Shinto is a
polytheistic religion
based on the
respect of nature &
ancestor worship
Shinto worshipers
believed in divine
spirits called kami
that live in nature
The most important
of the Shinto gods is
the sun goddess who
gave light to the world
Japanese Feudalism
By the mid-1000s, the imperial gov’t
grew weak, regional landowners
gained power,
& Japan became lawless &
As a result, Japan
developed a feudal system
Farmers traded land to strong
warlords called daimyo who
offered protection
Daimyo were served by
loyal warriors called
In 1192, the first
shogun was named
by the emperor
The emperor remained
in place, but the shogun
held real power & ruled
as military dictators
Shoguns’ power varied
over time, but the
pattern of gov’t
controlled by a shogun
lasted until 1867
Tokugawa Shogunate
In 1603, Tokugawa became shogun of Japan, moved
to capital to Edo (later called Tokyo), & restored gov’t
& order to Japan
Tokugawa ruled until 1615, but he created a line of
succession called the Tokugawa Shogunate that ruled
Japan until 1867
Tokugawa shoguns decided to
exclude foreign merchants &
By 1639, Japan
adopted a
“closed country
policy” &
ended almost all
foreign contacts
A monotheistic religion founded in the
Punjab region of India in the 15th
century by Guru Nanak, and marked by
rejection of idolatry and caste. Sikhism
is the 5th largest religion in the world.