History of animation

Old and new
In the 1800’s the beginning signs of 2D animation techniques began to pop up
into the scene. Different styles and techniques were being devised in this
time but there were four that stood out from the rest. Phenakistoscope,
Zoetrope, Praxinoscope and the Kinetoscope.
In the following slides I am going to be writing about the first signs of animation
and how they have developed all the way up until present time today. I will
present these styles of animation and there creators in timeline order after
doing so I will explain how 2D animation has developed around us and how
it is being shown in everyday life such as in television internet and
advertising etc.
The Beginning
In the early days around 18,000 BC the first signs of humans
expressing themselves in an artistic ways were being shown.
There are many signs of cave paintings in ancient caves
around the world one of the well known set of caves would
be the Apollo 11 caves in Africa. These paintings were not
animation but it has been said that when light flickers over
the paintings it creates an illusion that the images are
The Beginning
In 2000 BC both Egyptians and Greeks were expressing themselves in
the same way as the wall paintings.
Greeks chose to draw their stories on pottery, the stories usually
consisted of strong gladiators and different battles here is an
example of Perseus defeating medusa
The Beginning
Egyptians presented their art in the same style as the Greeks
but their paintings were on walls and Papyrus scrolls. There
are many different stories that can be told and again
although this is not a full sign of fully functional moving
animation it just shows how animation developed from the
.The Phenakistoscope was developed in the 1830’S
by the Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau
.This device was the first of its kind and the name of
the device was chosen due to its Latin meaning
.This device was made to deceive the human eye to
believe that the animation was really moving
when really infact it was a sequence of images
played to create a moving image.
.The zoetrope was the second form of 2D animation device, this
device was originally created in china 180ad by the chinese
inventor Ting Huan.
.The Pipe Which Makes Fantasies Appear
. the British mathematician William George Horner created the
modern version in 1834. This modern device was called the
Daedalum which was popularly translated into the wheel of
devil. This device did not become popular until the 1860’s
were it then was later renamed to the Zoetrope Wheel of Life
.The Praxinoscope was developed as the successor of the zoetrope in
France 1877 Charles-Émile Reynaud.
. The praxinoscope improved on the zoetrope by replacing its narrow
viewing slits with an inner circle of mirrors, placed so that the
reflections of the pictures appeared more or less stationary in
position as the wheel turned.
. . Like a lot of the other first animation devices there is a meaning to
the name the closest translation to the word Praxinoscope is action
viewer from Greek roots.
.was developed further in the later 1800’s The theatre optique
was an improved version brought in by Reynaud in 1889
this new improved version allowed him to project longer roles
of film meaning that he could show brighter hand drawn
images in animation.
.Thomas Edison announced his new invention in a caveat full of
people on October the 17th 1888
. describing his ideas for a device which would "do for the eye
what the phonograph does for the ear" record and reproduce
objects in motion
. Edison called the invention a Kinetoscope, using the Greek
words "kineto " meaning "movement" and "scopos" meaning
"to watch."
Edison's assistant, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, was given the task
of inventing the device in June 1889 this was said to be because he
had a background knowledge of photography.
.Laurie Dickonson was responsible for testing the machine and actually
creating this motion picture device.
Animation Early Days
J. Stuart Blackton was one of the major pioneers of animation.
He began his short legacy by using the stop motion
animation techniques and became very popular. One of his
most famous animations was the enchanted drawing in
which he used stop motion techniques to interact with a
drawing he had created on a chalkboard. This seems very
simple to the people of our world today but this was the start
of something big.
Animation Early Days
Emile Cohl
Created the first film made entirely full of animation "The Father
of the Animated Cartoon“ fantasmagorie was emiles first
fully animated film made in 1908
(700 drawings made of rice paper)
Animation Early Days
Canadian born Windsor McCay produced a small number of
films but of a very high quality McCay's pioneering early
animated films far outshone the work of his contemporaries,
and set a standard followed by Walt Disney and others in
later decades. His two best-known creations are the
newspaper comic strip Little Nemo in Slumberland and gertie
the dinosaur
Animation Early Days
John Randolph Bray evolved animation and made the process
of making animation a whole lot easier with his cell system.
Cell animation helped with the positioning of the drawings
and minimized the time consumption dramatically
He produced the first animated-color film, The Debut of Thomas
Cat (1920),
Animation Early Days
Walter Elias "Walt" Disney Disney is a film producer and a
popular showman, he was also an innovator in animation
and theme park design. He and his staff created a number of
the world's most famous fictional characters including Mickey
Mouse, a character for which Disney himself was the original
voice. Mickey mouse is now one of the most iconic
characters in the world and It all kicked off from Disneys
animation “Steam boat willie”
Disney is also responsible for the first full feature length
animated movie “Snow white and the seven dwarfs”
After the coloured and sound animations took off and became
known to the world it continued to be visible to the world in
entertainment form. Disney decided to keep their animations
film based so it was left to other entertainment companies
such as Warner Bro’s the takeover the television scene with
different animation series.
MGM was responsible for most of the popular cartoon
animations in the 1900. Cartoons such as Bugs Bunny and
Tom and Jerry all had something to do with MGM
William Hanna and Joseph Barbera
HannahBarbera created their own company which hosted one of
their most popular tv shows The Flinstones. Animation began
to become more and more popular and associated with
entertaining kids but it was also being used as a form of
advertisement and also it was being used for title sequences
for opening shows such as The lucy show. Here is an
example to explain the animation advertisement side
Entertainment Animation
HannahBarbera ended up developing into what we know today as
Cartoon Network. This is one if not the most popular kids television
station in the world. It shows a variety of different TV programmes
ranging from the old school hits such as Scooby doo to new
children's shows such as The cramp Twins. Cartoon Network was
mainly a youth orientated show which was aimed at kids and is still
in a league of its own even though rival stations have appeared
.over the years
Entertainment Animation
At the same time that americans where having there success
Japan was also developing fast with their first animation
series Astro boy created by Osamu Tezuka. Osamu was
often refurred to as the God of Managa and manga wa the
original still form of astroboy before it was turned into an
animation. The Japanese style aimation has since been
given its own style
name Anime
Entertainment Animation
Now that the internet has been introduced many websites have
been able to add animation to make their sites appeal more.
Now many sites will have animation involved within them and
Cartoon Network have done exactly that by incorprating
animation within their websites to catch their target audience
and draw them in more
Entertainment Animation
Animation has moved beyond children, it has moved on because
people have realized that animation can be used to market any type
of product providing it is used in the right way. Music videos are
now being shown with animation involved from advanced to very
simple styles. There is a great amount in different types of
animations in music videos here are just a few as an example
Entertainment Animation
Throughout the recent years animation in movies has
developed dramatically in terms of the techniques
used, it wasn’t until about 1993 that dramatic
change was shown in the animation film area. In
1993 Jurassic Park used CG to create the illusion
of real life animated dinosaurs in this hit film. This
film late continued to make sequels and trilogys
but this was the first of its kind and it was a hit.
Entertainment Animation
Leading up to 1995 Disney regulated the animation
movie scene with countless amounts of movie hits
such a The Beauty and the Beast and Alladin but
when Toy story was realesed it made Worldwide
history. Toy story was the first 3D CGI full feature
length film and it smashed records due to how
amazed the public were to this new type of
animation and new form of entertainment.
After this disney realised they were on to a winner so
they continued and made Bugs Life and then Toy
story 2.
Entertainment Animation
Miyazaki kept busy like Disney but was not able to release as much
and at a pace that Disney studios was. Miyazaki (known as the
Japanese Walt Disney) preffered to do his animation all hand drawn
so it was very time consuming. His work paid off though in the end
Miyazaki ended up with a lot of hit films one of his most popular is
the 2001 Spirited away which consists of hand drawn animation
and CG.
Entertainment Animation
Since Disney introduced the CG 3D style animation they have not really
gone back to the traditional hand drawn styled animation here’s just
a few pictures to show how far they have come. Also animation
companies have found ways to profit more by creating 3D versions
of their films were they can be viewed in 3D form for a greater
cinema experience
Computer games have been using animation from the start ad just like
how animation has developed so has computer game with it. The
more animation technology is developed the better gaming
experiences for people is going to be. The growth of computer
games has changed dramatically from the space by space block
style Atari games to new dynamic sports games with equipped
physics for enhanced gaming experience.
Just like films games use different types of animation styles but CG has
taken over game players want to see more realistic games all the
time and we are seeing this outcome in games such as Call of Duty
Fifa 11 and GTA. All the surroundings and effects down to ripples in
water are being perfected.
Mobile phones are even being combined with animation nowadays not
only wit the games that they provide but even down to the simplest
things like the phone start up animations. Now technology with
phones is growing fast so animation has to be added. Many phones
in the market can hold screensavers so a lot of animated
screensavers have been developed to help users interact with their
phones more. There are a lor more uses for animation in products
like this but these are just some of the basics.
Advertisement is around us everywhere and companies have realised
that animation does not only capture the eyes of children but it
captures the eye of al ages depending on the topic. A lot of
companies design animated adverts to catch their target audiences
eye and push forward their product a big example of this would be
By having the confused.com little character it gives us as the audience
something to associate that brand with instead of a random face the
colours and character stick into out brains and act as a trigger
anytime we see it again.
Advertisement is also sometimes done in animation
because the animation can show what real life
action can not. Animation can help show diagrams
or anything informative, by doing this it can cut out
a lot of stress and speed up the process of
explanation. A lot of nutritious products do this in
their advertisements to show the good things
about their products here are a few examples.