Hindu Scriptures at a Glance By: Godavari Senior Students (Religion) Hindu Scriptures - At a Glance • All Hindu Scriptures Originated from “Vedas”. • Dating: To ‘Sindhu’ civilization > 3000BC). • Revealed (by GOD) or “Apurusheya”. • Over 90,000 slokas or mantras. • Written in Sanskrit • Passed on through verbal chanting over generations. Hindu Scriptures - At a Glance • Vedas –Vedangas –Upavedas • Upanishads • Puranas • Itihaas • Gita • Acharyas Vedas Vedas • Author - Ved Vyas • Basis for Hindu religion Samhitas • Compilations Brahmanas • Prose that discusses Rituals. Aranyakas • Forest treatises discussing Rituals Vedas Rig Veda Hymns about Gods Indra, Varuna and Agni. Yajur Veda Mantras on Rituals, Sacrifices and Yagnas Sama Veda Hymns and Songs for Pooja and music. Artharva Veda Mantras about Healing, Marriage and Death. Vedangas Vedanga’s • Preserve, and protect Vedic traditions over generations without getting corrupted. • Authors (19): Famous ones are – Panini, Yaska, Katyayana, Brithruhari and Patanjali. • Time Scale: 200BC – 800BC. Vedanga’s • Vedangas help in understanding Vedas • Siksha, • Chhanda, • Vyakarana • Nirukuta, • Jyotisha • Kalpa Vedanga’s Siksha Chandas Vyakarna Nirukuta Pronunciation of words and syllables Meter used in Vedic hymns Sanskrit Grammar Explanations of difficult words in the vedas (Dictionary or ‘Nighantu’). Jyothisya The astrological and astronomical aspects of auspicious times Kalpa Explains the aspects that deal with Pooja and associated rituals UpaVedas UpaVedas • These compositions, each are attached to one of the four main Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva respectively). • Four Upavedas • Artha Veda - Science of economics and sociology • Dhanur Veda - Science of defense, war and politics • Gandharva Veda - Art of music, dancing and singing • Ayur Veda – Science of Plants and Medicine. UpaVedas • Authors • Artha Veda - Sage Brihaspathi . • Dhanur Veda - Sage Brighu • Gandharva Veda – Muni Bharata • Ayur Veda – Sage Dhanvantri Upanishads Upanishads • Philosophical Texts • Authors: Many Sages: • Yajnavalkya • Uddalaka Aruni, • Aitareya, • Manu, • Brihaspati • Narada. • Approximate Dating: 800 and 400BC Upanishads • • • • • • • • Chandogya Keno Isa Titreya Aitareya Mundaka Mandukya Prashna Puranas Puranas • • Purana (Sanskrit)- “of ancient times” Narrative of the history of the universe: – – – – • Creation and Destruction Genealogies of the kings Heroes and Demigods Cosmology and Geograhpy Thousands of years of history Puranas • Veda Vyasa • Before 500 BCE • Written 3rd-5th century AD • 18 accepted puranas Puranas • Brahma Puranas: – – – – – Brahma Purana Brahmānda Purana Brahma Vaivarta Purana Mārkandeya Purana Bhavishya Purana • Shaiva Puranas: – – – – – Shiva Purana Linga Purana Skanda Purana Agni Purana Vāyu Purana • Vaisnava Puranas: – – – – – – – – – – Vishnu Purana Bhagavata Purana Nāradeya Purana Garuda Purana Padma Purana Varaha Purana Vāmana Purana Kūrma Purana Matsya Purana Kalki Purana Srimad Devi Bhagawatam • Focuses on the love and life of Krishna • Avatars of Vishnu • Bhakti-Union with the Divine • 12 books • 18,000 verses Bhagavad Gita Bhagavad Gita • Gita is a conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna on a battle field. • It was written by sage Veda Vyasa. • It was originally told and written back in 3171 BC. • The Gita has 700 verses, and 18 chapters in all. There are 32 syllables in each verse, 4 lines in each verse and 8 syllables per line. • Gita are written in Sanskrit. Bhagavad Gita • The Gita can be divided into 3 sections: -Karma Yoga (the yoga of actions) -Bhakti Yoga (the yoga of devotion) -Jnana Yoga (the yoga of knowledge) • The best choices to make in life are the hardest ones, and that a person needs to fulfill their duty before anything else. • Lord Krishna told Arjuna that, as a prince, it was Arjuna’s duty to fight the evil (that his cousins represented) and defend the righteous, in a war. Itihās Itihās (Translation: “Historical Event”) Authors: • Valmiki - Ramayana. • Vyasa - Mahabharat Time Scale: • 500 BC Itihās Ramayana About King Rama. Depicts the duties of relationships, portrays ideal characters like the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king. Conflict between righteous and evil paths and their consequences. Mahabharat About Kauravas and Pandavas. Exemplifies the four "goals of life" or purusharthas. • Dharma (right action) • Artha (purpose) • Kama (pleasure) • Moksha (liberation) Acharyas Neha Devaravar And Ruhy Patel Acharyas • Acharya -guide or instructor in religious matters • Also used to address teacher or scholar • A common suffix in Brahmin/Viswakarma names • Many involved in teaching vedic texts and traditions. Acharyas • Adi Shankaracharya (780 AD) Adi Shankara's Bhashyas (commentaries) on the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, Advita Vedanta and Brahma Sutras are his principal works. • Ramanujacharya (1017AD) Ramanuja may have written 9 books. They are also referred to as the nine precious gems, the Navarathnas. • Madhvacharya (1238AD) The 8 monasteries (Ashta mathas) of Udupi have been following his philosophy since then. He proposed ‘Dvaitha’ siddantam.